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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12-14

Historical review of inferior oblique muscle surgery


Department of Ophthalmology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

Date of Submission31-Dec-2016
Date of Acceptance02-Feb-2017
Date of Web Publication30-Mar-2017

Correspondence Address:
Miho Sato
Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi Ward, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture 431-3192
Japan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/tjo.tjo_21_17

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  Abstract 

Surgery on inferior oblique muscle has a long history and various surgical techniques have been developed. The historical review of the surgery starting in 1840's to date is performed. The surgical effectiveness between simple myectomy and recession is still controversial.

Keywords: Dissociated vertical deviation, inferior oblique, superior oblique palsy, surgery


How to cite this article:
Sato M. Historical review of inferior oblique muscle surgery. Taiwan J Ophthalmol 2017;7:12-4

How to cite this URL:
Sato M. Historical review of inferior oblique muscle surgery. Taiwan J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Jun 23];7:12-4. Available from: http://www.e-tjo.org/text.asp?2017/7/1/12/203473




  Introduction Top


Bielschowsky classified cyclovertical deviations into five groups, (1) purely comitant vertical deviations, (2) vertical deviations of paretic origin, (3) deviations with unilateral overaction of the inferior oblique (IO) muscles, (4) dissociated vertical deviations (DVD), and (5) vertical deviations combined with features of several of the other groups.[1] Currently, IO muscle surgery has been widely used for treating primary IO muscle overaction (IOOA), secondary IOOA due to superior oblique muscle palsy, DVD, V pattern strabismus and other vertical or torsional strabismus. The surgery on IO started to be described in the literature in the 1840s, and various procedures have been recognized. The historical review of the surgery on IO muscle is performed.


  Literature Review Top


German literature, before 1900

The detailed history of strabismology from its beginning in English and German literature is written in the textbook by von Noorden.[2] In 1840, von Ammon considered subcutaneous myotomy of the lateral rectus and IO muscles but after experiments in animals and on human cadavers considered it to be not justifiable, and then he never performed the procedure.[3] The first description of IO muscle surgery was published in German [4] by PH Wolff with subcutaneous tenotomy. In 1840s, myotomy was the most popular procedure on all 6 extraocular muscles. Dieffenbach illustrated transconjunctival approach to 6 extraocular muscles although he used this technique very rarely.[5] The transcutaneous myotomy through an incision in the lateral aspect of the lower lid was the procedure of choice for weakening the IO muscle at the time of von Noorden training, and he says it occasionally resulted in a massive, subcutaneous hematoma.[2]

English literature, from 1900 to 2000

The first English literature of IO muscle surgery was written by Duane in 1906.[6] Duane recommended transcutaneous tenotomy of IO at its origin. In 1934, Smith described the indication of IO tenotomy for the ocular torticollis.[7] In 1942, White described a recession of IO muscle at the insertion site.[8] As he believed the tenotomy of IO was not a predictable procedure and recommended a recession procedure. Many other surgeons followed his idea, and the IO recession obtained popularity.[9],[10],[11],[12] In 1962, Dyer reported the effectiveness of IO myectomy as a simple and effective procedure,[13] and then, myectomy gained popularity as well. Costenbader compared the effectiveness of recession and myectomy of the IO,[14] and other experienced surgeons [15] started to perform myectomy. In 1972, Parks compared the different IO muscle weakening operations and concluded that the recession operation is most effective and long lasting.[16] In 1979, Toosi and von Noorden reported the average reduction of hyperdeviation by IO myectomy in the field of action of that muscle in primary position and the fields of action of a paretic superior oblique muscle is 11.5 p.d. and this effect increases with the size of the preoperative deviation.[17]

Anterior transposition of the IO was first described by Gobin [18] in 1964 as the anterior placement of the IO tendon enhances its weakening effect. The procedure is used to eliminate the severe IOOA.[19] The technique is then used for the treatment of DVD especially when IOOA coexists.[20],[21],[22] Mims performed inferior oblique anterior transposition (IOAT) on 61 cases of infantile esotropia patients with IOOA and reported the DVD surgery was required only in 1 patient.[23] Then the IOAT is recommended on patients with a higher risk of DVD with IOOA.[24],[25],[26] Anterior transposition of IO procedure convert the activity of the IO to antielevator, the procedure causes limitation in supraduction, and the condition is termed antielevation syndrome (AES) by Kushner.[27] Mims reported that AES may be prevented by attaching the posterior fibers of the IO muscle no more than 2 mm lateral to the inferior rectus (IR) muscle insertion site.[28]

2000 till current

Graded IO recession and anterior transposition for treatment IOOA and V pattern strabismus were evaluated its effectiveness, and satisfactory results are reported.[29],[30]

Although the AES is a well-recognized complication of anterior transposition of IO, combined resection, and anterior transposition are used to treat large angle of hyper deviation in primary position with superior oblique palsy,[31] large angle of DVD,[32],[33] and in cases with traumatic tear of IR muscle.[34],[35]

More recently, anterior and nasal transposition of IO muscle is recognized to be effective to treat severe superior oblique palsy,[36] iatrogenic superior oblique palsy,[37] and on DVD with severe IOOA.[38]

Although the various weakening techniques on IO including myectomy, recession, and anteriorization of IO, have a long history for the treatment of superior oblique palsy, the effectiveness of these procedures are still controversial.[39],[40],[41],[42],[43] Many researchers believe when vertical deviation at primary position exceeds 15 p.d., an IO muscle myectomy is not enough.[44],[45],[46] Plager proposed to determine the surgical approach to congenital superior oblique palsy with intraoperative superior oblique tendon traction test,[47] and recommends superior oblique tendon tuck procedure when the tendon is lax. Komori et al. reported that simultaneous procedure of IO myectomy and superior oblique tendon tuck procedure on cases with lax superior oblique tendon is safe and effective.[48]


  Conclusion Top


IO muscle has unique effects on both vertical and torsional eye movements. In addition, transposition procedure changes its action. Further study should be performed to compare the effectiveness of recession and myectomy.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

The author has no any conflicts of interest to declare.



 
  References Top

1.
Bielschowsky A. Disturbances of the vertical motor muscles of the eyes. Arch Ophthalmol 1938;20:175.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
von Noorden GK, editor. The History of Strabismology. Belgium: J.P. Wayenborgh; 2002. p. 42.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ammon FA von, Zur Heilung des Strabismus durch die Myotomie. Ammons Monatsschrift F Medizin 1840;III,3:321-32.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Wolff P. Neue Methode der Operation des Schiel-Auges durch subcutane Tenotomie. Herrn G.R. und ord. Berlin: Prof. Dr. J.F. Dieffenbach gewidmet; 1840.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Dieffenbach JF, editor. Uber das Schielen und die Hilung desselben durch die Operation. Berlin, Forstner; 1842.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Duane A. Tenotomy of inferior oblique and consideration of the conditions that may call for the operation. BMJ 1906;2:1867.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Smith ET. Ocular torticollis: Inferior oblique tenotomy and its indications. Br Med J 1934;1:374-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
White JW. Surgery of the inferior oblique at or near the insertion. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1942;40:118-26.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Morgan AL. Recession of the inferior oblique muscle. Arch Ophthal 1946;35:314.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Lloyd I. Recession of the inferior oblique. Br J Ophthalmol 1949;33:291-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Lyle TK. Recession of the inferior oblique. Br J Ophthalmol 1949;33:395-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Berens C, Cole HG, Chamichian S, Enos MV. Retroplacement of the inferior oblique at its scleral insertion. Am J Ophthalmol 1952;35:217-27.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Dyer JA. Tenotomy of the inferior oblique muscle at its scleral insertion. An easy and effective procedure. Arch Ophthalmol 1962;68:176-81.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Costenbader FD. Relaxing procedures of the inferior oblique – A comparative study. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1963;61:132-43.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Stuart JA. Myectomy of the inferior oblique muscle. Am J Ophthalmol 1964;57:118-21.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Parks MM. The weakening surgical procedures for eliminating overaction of the inferior oblique muscle. Am J Ophthalmol 1972;73:107-22.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Toosi SH, von Noorden GK. Effect of isolated inferior oblique muscle myectomy in the management of superior oblique muscle palsy. Am J Ophthalmol 1979;88:602-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Gobin MH. Anteroposition of the inferior oblique muscle in V-esotropia. Ophthalmologica 1964;148:325-41.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Elliott RL, Nankin SJ. Anterior transposition of the inferior oblique. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1981;18:35-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Burke JP, Scott WE, Kutshke PJ. Anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle for dissociated vertical deviation. Ophthalmology 1993;100:245-50.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Kratz RE, Rogers GL, Bremer DL, Leguire LE. Anterior tendon displacement of the inferior oblique for DVD. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1989;26:212-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Milot J, Tremblay C, Ouellette C. Anterior transposition of the inferior oblique for dissociated vertical deviation with inferior oblique overaction. Can J Ophthalmol 1994;29:284-7.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Mims JL 3rd, Wood RC. Bilateral anterior transposition of the inferior obliques. Arch Ophthalmol 1989;107:41-4.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Stager DR, Weakley DR Jr., Stager D. Anterior transposition of the inferior oblique. Anatomic assessment of the neurovascular bundle. Arch Ophthalmol 1992;110:360-2.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Santiago AP, Isenberg SJ, Apt L, Roh YB. The effect of anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle on ocular torsion. J AAPOS 1997;1:191-6.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Min BM, Park JH, Kim SY, Lee SB. Comparison of inferior oblique muscle weakening by anterior transposition or myectomy: A prospective study of 20 cases. Br J Ophthalmol 1999;83:206-8.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Kushner BJ. Restriction of elevation in abduction after inferior oblique anteriorization. J AAPOS 1997;1:55-62.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Mims JL 3rd, Wood RC. Antielevation syndrome after bilateral anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscles: Incidence and prevention. J AAPOS 1999;3:333-6.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Monteiro de Carvalho KM, Minguini N, Dantas FJ, Lamas P, Jose NK. Quantification (grading) of inferior oblique muscle recession for V-pattern strabismus. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q 1998;13:181-4.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Polati M, Gomi C. Recession and measured, graded anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscles for V-pattern strabismus: Outcome of 44 procedures in 22 typical patients. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q 2002;17:89-94.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Farvardin M, Attarzadeh A. Combined resection and anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle for the treatment of moderate to large dissociated vertical deviation associated with inferior oblique muscle overaction. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2002;39:268-72.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Wong CY, Ng JS, Goh TY. Combined resection and anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle for the treatment of moderate to large dissociated vertical deviation associated with inferior oblique muscle overaction. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2003;40:194-5.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Quinn AG, Kraft SP, Day C, Taylor RS, Levin AV. A prospective evaluation of anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle, with and without resection, in the treatment of dissociated vertical deviation. J AAPOS 2000;4:348-53.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Godeiro KD, Pinto AG, Souza Filho JP, Petrilli AM, Nakanami CR. Traumatic tear of the inferior rectus muscle treated with inferior oblique anterior transposition. Int Ophthalmol 2005;26:185-9.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Parvataneni M, Olitsky SE. Unilateral anterior transposition and resection of the inferior oblique muscle for the treatment of hypertropia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2005;42:163-5.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Hussein MA, Stager DR Sr., Beauchamp GR, Stager DR Jr., Felius J. Anterior and nasal transposition of the inferior oblique muscles in patients with missing superior oblique tendons. J AAPOS 2007;11:29-33.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Wong IB, Paris V, Choi HK, Farzavandi S. Anterior and nasal transposition of the inferior oblique muscle for iatrogenic superior oblique palsy. Arch Ophthalmol 2011;129:1381-2.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Fard MA. Anterior and nasal transposition of the inferior oblique muscle for dissociated vertical deviation associated with inferior oblique muscle overaction. J AAPOS 2010;14:35-8.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Muchnick RS, McCullough DH, Strominger MB. Comparison of anterior transposition and recession of the inferior oblique muscle in unilateral superior oblique paresis. J AAPOS 1998;2:340-3.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Ghazawy S, Reddy AR, Kipioti A, McShane P, Arora S, Bradbury JA. Myectomy versus anterior transposition for inferior oblique overaction. J AAPOS 2007;11:601-5.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Minguini N, de Carvalho KM, de Araújo L, Crosta C. Anterior transposition compared to graded recession of the inferior oblique muscle for V-pattern strabismus. Strabismus 2004;12:221-5.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Rajavi Z, Molazadeh A, Ramezani A, Yaseri M. A randomized clinical trial comparing myectomy and recession in the management of inferior oblique muscle overaction. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2011;48:375-80.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Bahl RS, Marcotty A, Rychwalski PJ, Traboulsi EI. Comparison of inferior oblique myectomy to recession for the treatment of superior oblique palsy. Br J Ophthalmol 2013;97:184-8.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Helveston EM, Mora JS, Lipsky SN, Plager DA, Ellis FD, Sprunger DT, et al. Surgical treatment of superior oblique palsy. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1996;94:315-28.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Sato M. Magnetic resonance imaging and tendon anomaly associated with congenital superior oblique palsy. Am J Ophthalmol 1999;127:379-87.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Sato M, Iwata EA, Takai Y, Hikoya A, Koide YM. Superior oblique palsy with class III tendon anomaly. Am J Ophthalmol 2008;146:385-94.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Plager DA. Tendon laxity in superior oblique palsy. Ophthalmology 1992;99:1032-8.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Komori M, Suzuki H, Hikoya A, Sawada M, Hotta Y, Sato M. Evaluation of surgical strategy based on the intraoperative superior oblique tendon traction test. PLoS One 2016;11:e0168245.  Back to cited text no. 48
    




 

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Abstract
Introduction
Literature Review
Conclusion
References

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