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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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April-June 2020
Volume 10 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 77-150

Online since Tuesday, June 2, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

Transient receptor potential ion channel family has come on to the front stage in the eye research field p. 77
Shizuya Saika
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_14_20  
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SPECIAL REPORT Top

Proposed measures to be taken by ophthalmologists during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: Experience from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan p. 80
Jui-Yen Lin, Eugene Yu-Chuan Kang, Po-Han Yeh, Xiao Chun Ling, Hung-Chi Chen, Kuan-Jen Chen, Yih-Shiou Hwang, Chi-Chun Lai, Wei-Chi Wu
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_21_20  
PURPOSE: Although Taiwan was one of the first countries to develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with effective antiepidemic measures, Taiwan has effectively controlled the spread of the disease. The purpose of this article is to provide useful safety strategies for ophthalmologists in daily practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Infection control strategies in the hospital and Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, are discussed. RESULTS: Ophthalmologists are at high risk of contracting COVID-19 infection, as they have close contact with patients during ocular examinations, and are also facing high patient volume in outpatient clinics as well as emergency consultations. Furthermore, ocular symptoms, such as conjunctivitis, may be the presenting signs of COVID-19 infection. We provide our strategies, which include hospital's gate control with triage station, patient volume control, proper personal protective equipment, and consultation with telemedicine technology, to decrease the risk of cross-infection between medical staffs and patients. CONCLUSION: To achieve the goal of preventing viral spread and maximizing patient and medical staffs' safety, besides providing proper protective equipment, it is also crucial for staffs and patients to strictly follow antiepidemic measures. We hope that our experience can help ophthalmologists and health-care workers to have a safer working environment when facing COVID-19 pandemic.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Macular laser photocoagulation in the management of diabetic macular edema: Still relevant in 2020? p. 87
Marcelo Zas, Mariano Cotic, Max Wu, Andres Wu, Lihteh Wu
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_16_20  
Macular laser photocoagulation (MLP) is inferior to intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors in the treatment of center-involved diabetic macular edema (DME). Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography-guided laser photocoagulation to presumed ischemic areas of the peripheral retina or MLP do not reduce the treatment burden nor improve the visual outcomes of eyes treated with anti-VEGF drugs. Destruction of retinal tissue is not necessary to induce a therapeutic response in DME. Modern lasers are capable of producing invisible laser “burns” that do not destroy the targeted tissue using micropulse subthreshold (ST) mode where the laser's duty cycle is modified or alternatively selective retinal therapy (SRT) where ultrashort pulses of continuous wave laser selectively target the RPE. The best results with micropulse ST laser are obtained in eyes with a central macular thickness ≤400 μm. Eyes need to be treated in a continuous manner with no spaces between burns in the edematous area. Micropulse ST-MLP downregulates inflammatory biomarkers produced by activated microglial cells and Müller cells. Micropulse ST-MLP may reduce the anti-VEGF injection burden in DME. In SRT, the diseased RPE is targeted and heated with the laser with the hope that the adjacent RPE migrates and proliferates into these areas to heal the diseased RPE. There is much less experience with SRT, but the results are promising and deserve further study.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Long-term intraocular pressure after switching a combination ophthalmic medication of β-blocker/prostaglandin p. 95
Yukihisa Takada, Takayoshi Sumioka, Masaki Nakagawa, Shizuya Saika
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_77_19  
PURPOSE: We examined intraocular pressure (IOP)-reducing effects 12 months after switching timolol maleate/travoprost combination ophthalmic solution in one bottle (TM/TR-COMBI-SOL) to carteolol hydrochloride/latanoprost combination ophthalmic solution in one bottle (CR/LT-COMBI-SOL). CASES: The participants included 25 patients (25 eyes) who could be followed up for 12 months after a switch from TM/TR-COMBI-SOL to CR/LT-COMBI-SOL in Saiseikai Arida Hospital between March 1, 2017, and August 31, 2018. They consisted of patients in whom antiglaucoma eye drop other than TM/TR-COMBI-SOL had not been used (monotherapy group, 12 patients [12 eyes], 12.8 ± 3.0 mmHg) and those in whom antiglaucoma eye drop other than TM/TR-COMBI-SOL had been concomitantly used (multitherapy group, 13 patients [13 eyes], 13.8 ± 2.4 mmHg). We excluded patients in whom drugs for glaucoma were changed or added during the follow-up and those who underwent intraocular surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively and statistically examined the IOP before eye drop switching and after 1, 6, and 12 months, using the paired t-test. RESULTS: The IOPs 1 month after eye drop switching in the monotherapy group and multitherapy group were 12.5 ± 3.3 and 13.8 ± 2.5 mmHg, respectively. The values after 6 months were 13.5 ± 3.0 and 11.5 ± 2.7 mmHg, respectively. Those after 12 months were 12.8 ± 2.7 and 11.7 ± 2.5 mmHg, respectively. In the monotherapy group, there was no significant difference during the follow-up period. In the multitherapy group, there were significant decreases in comparison with the preswitching value after 6 and 12 months (P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: The IOP-reducing effects of CR/LT-COMBI-SOL were similar to those of TM/TR-COMBI-SOL. However, the effects may be enhanced after switching from TM/TR-COMBI-SOL in patients receiving multitherapy.
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Inhibition of Rho kinase suppresses capsular contraction following lens injury in mice p. 100
Kana Ichikawa, Sai-Ichi Tanaka, Masayasu Miyajima, Yuka Okada, Shizuya Saika
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_80_19  
PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of systemic fasudil hydrochloride and an inhibitor of nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) on capsular contraction in a puncture-injured lens in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lens injury of an anterior capsular break was achieved in male adult C57Bl/6 mice under general and topical anesthesia at 1 h after systemic fasudil hydrochloride (intraperitoneal, 10 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle administration. The mice were allowed to heal after instillation of ofloxacin ointment, for 5 and 10 days with daily administration of fasudil hydrochloride or vehicle. In another series of experiment, we examined the effect of systemic administration of an MRTF-A inhibitor (CCG-203971, 100 mg/kg twice a day) on fibrogenic reaction and tissue contraction in an injured lens on day 5 or 10. The eye was processed for histology and immunohistochemistry for SM22, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), or MRTF-A. In hematoxylin and eosin -stained samples, the distance between each edge of the break of the anterior capsule was measured and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: A cluster of lens cell accumulation was formed adjacent to the edge of the capsular break on day 5. It contained cells labeled for SM22 and PCNA. The size of the cell cluster was larger in fasudil group of mice than in control mice on day 5. Systemic fasudil or CCG-203971 suppressed an excess contraction of the capsular break at certain time points. CONCLUSION: Systemic administration of fasudil hydrochloride could be a treatment strategy of postoperative capsular contraction following cataract-intraocular lens surgery.
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Alteration of expression pattern of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 in ocular surface neoplasm p. 106
Ai Izutani-Kitano, Yuka Okada, Kana Ichikawa, Peter Sol Reinach, Shizuya Saika
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_12_20  
PURPOSE: We determined if the immunohistochemical expression pattern of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) family members and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) differs among a healthy conjunctival epithelium and diseased epithelia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects include a normal conjunctival epithelium, pterygium epithelium, epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma in situ. RESULTS: TRPV1, TRPV4 or TRPA1 was detected in both the cytoplasm and nuclei, or in either the nuclei or cytoplasm, of these different epithelial layers, respectively. There was no difference in the expression pattern of these three TRP isoforms. On the other hand, the expression patterns of TRPV2 and TRPV3 differed dramatically among these different subjects. TRPV2 was observed in the basal layer epithelium of a normal conjunctiva and pterygium. Its pattern was scattered in this region, although TRPV2 was absent throughout most of the dysplastic epithelium. TRPV2 was detected only in some of the suprabasal epithelial cells of a carcinoma in situ. TRPV3 was faintly detected in the cytoplasm of all the cell layers and also in the nuclei of some of the basal cells in a normal conjunctiva and in the pterygia epithelium, while in situ it was uniformly expressed in all of the dysplasia and carcinoma nuclei in all epithelial cell layers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that TRPV2 and TRPV3 expression pattern analysis might be potential diagnostic markers of ocular surface epithelial disorders.
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Short-term refractive and ocular parameter changes after topical atropine p. 111
Min-Chieh Ho, Yi-Ting Hsieh, Elizabeth P Shen, Wei-Cherng Hsu, Han-Chih Cheng
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_110_18  
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to explore short-term refractive and ocular parameter changes and their correlations after cycloplegia with atropine. METERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective clinical trial that enrolled 96 eyes of 96 participants (mean age, 8.5 ± 2.1 years). Spherical equivalent refractive error (SER), axial length (AL), mean keratometric value (mean-K), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured at baseline and 1 week after topical use of 0.125% atropine. Postcycloplegic changes of refractive error and ocular parameters were evaluated, and their correlations were analyzed with multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: After topical atropine use, the mean AL decreased by 0.016 mm (P = 0.008), and the mean ACD increased by 0.58 mm (P < 0.0001). There was no significant change in the Mean-K or IOP. Eighty-two eyes (85%) had an emmetropic or hyperopic shift, and 14 (15%) had a myopic shift. Those with an emmetropic or hyperopic shift had their mean AL shortened by 0.023 mm, whereas the eyes with myopic shifts had their mean AL lengthened by 0.026 mm (P = 0.003). Change in SER was negatively correlated with change in AL (−2.57 D for an increase of 1 mm in AL, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with change in ACD (+0.96 D for an increase of 1 mm in ACD, P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Most eyes had emmetropic or hyperopic changes after short-term topical atropine use, and AL shortening and anterior chamber deepening both contributed to the hyperopic changes. Meanwhile, myopic change may be observed in some eyes (15%), which were related to transient AL elongation but not invalid myopic control. This encouraged clinicians to sustain the atropine treatment for a longer period before switching to other modalities for myopic control in clinical practice. The clinical trial registration number NCT03839888 (clinicaltrials.gov).
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Endonasal endoscopic nasolacrimal duct dissection for primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction Highly accessed article p. 116
Ko-Fang Chang, Yun-Dun Shen
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_111_18  
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe the results of endonasal endoscopic nasolacrimal duct dissection (EE-NLDD); a surgical technique used for the treatment of primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Before the operation, the patency of the nasolacrimal duct (NLD) was evaluated through irrigation and probing. The EE-NLDD surgical procedure involved the removal of the bony structure covering the NLD. The NLD mucosa was dissected and marsupialized with nasal mucosa, creating a mucosa-covered ostium. The bone surrounding the lacrimal fossa and lacrimal sac mucosa was preserved throughout procedure. The postoperative anatomical and functional outcomes were evaluated through irrigation, endonasal endoscopic fluorescein dye test, and subjective descriptions of the patients. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective chart review study which included all patients with primary NLDO treated with EE-NLDD surgical technique from February 2012 to July 2016 in Taipei Medical University Shuang Ho Hospital by a single surgeon (YD, Shen). RESULTS: The mean follow-up time for the 39 patients (43 eyes) was 14.7 months (range: 0.5–46 months). Anatomical patency was achieved in all patients. Under endonasal endoscopy, fluorescein dye was observed at the internal orifice after the dye was instilled into the conjunctival sac in all patients. The complete resolution of the epiphora was reported in 36 patients (39 eyes) and two patients (2 eyes) exhibited an improvement of the epiphora after surgery. However, one patient (2 eyes) reported persistent bilateral epiphora without improvement even under solid evidence of anatomical patency. No major complications were noted intraoperatively or postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that the EE-NLDD is a safe and effective procedure and has a success rate comparable with that of conventional endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy.
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Evaluation of the relation between Lens Opacities Classification System III grading and nuclear size by direct measurement p. 121
Chidanand Kulkarni
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_19_19  
CONTEXT: Although relation between Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) and nuclear density is established, no data are available about nuclear size at different LOCS III grades. AIMS: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relation between LOCS III grading of nuclear opacity obtained preoperatively and the size of the nucleus obtained during cataract surgery. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study carried out in a hospital attached to medical college. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent manual small-incision cataract surgery or extra-large temporal tunnel cataract extraction and gave consent were included in this study. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was taken for the study. Preoperative LOCS III grading was obtained at slit-lamp biomicroscope. Ocular dimensions were obtained by preoperative immersion biometry. The thickness and diameter of the nucleus obtained by extraction were measured up to 10 μ accuracy. Data were analyzed for the change in nuclear thickness, nuclear diameter, age, lens thickness, and anterior chamber depth in relation to the LOCS III grade of the nucleus. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Statistical analysis used in this study was one-way ANOVA, mean, and range. RESULTS: There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in nuclear thickness, nuclear diameter, and age with increasing LOCS III grade of the nucleus. The change in nuclear size was linear between Grades 1 and 4. The nuclear size did not increase between Grades 4 and 5. It increased steeply from Grade 5 to Grade 6.9. CONCLUSION: LOCS III grading of the nucleus can be utilized for determining the nuclear thickness and diameter preoperatively. These data can be helpful in adjusting machine parameters during phacoemulsification.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION Top

Forceps-assisted, 10-0 monofilament nylon, suture-guided capsular tension ring insertion in subluxatedcataracts p. 127
Harinder Singh Sethi, Mayuresh Naik
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_26_18  
Capsular tension ring (CTR) and iris hooks have proved to be useful devices in cataract surgery in cases of zonular weakness and dialysis. We would like to describe the use of monofilament 10-0 nylon (MFN)- guided CTR insertion in a subluxated cataractous lens. Here, the MFN is passed through the distal trailing eyelet of the CTR (simple or Morcher's depending on the size of the defect and subluxation) for controlled insertion of the distal eyelet of the CTR beneath the anterior capsulorhexis margin and safe retrieval of CTR in case of an iatrogenic posterior capsular tear during CTR insertion or phacoemulsification.
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CASE REPORTS Top

A case of surgically treated traumatic ptosis caused by scratching by human hand p. 131
Toshihiko Nishioka, Yuji Shirakawa, Yuka Okada, Shizuya Saika, Shinichi Asamura
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_8_20  
The patient was a 49-year-old woman. She had worked at a child welfare facility where she sustained a wound to the left side of her upper eyelid after it was scratched by a child facility resident's finger. One month had passed since the injury when she visited our hospital. The initial treatment was not appropriate, and her left eyelid could not be lifted at all. A secondary surgery was performed 2 months after the injury when the scar contracture was most strong. Such corrective surgery for posttraumatic eyelid is typically scheduled after at least 6 months when the scar tissue softens from the viewpoint of wound healing. However, this case indicated the importance of determining the appropriate timing of surgery in consideration of the patient's background and the scientific basis. Reports of sharp traumatic ptosis are rare, and this is the first reported case of traumatic ptosis resulting from a scratch caused by human hand.
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Dermis-fat graft as treatment of early implant exposure in a postpenetrating keratoplasty patient with nontraumatic eyeball rupture p. 134
Yi-Ling Lu, Zoe Tzu-Yi Chen, I-Lun Tsai
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_143_18  
Orbital implant exposure may be the most common complication after evisceration surgery with orbital implantation. Management of implant exposure is a vital issue for oculoplastic surgeons. We present the case of a patient with nontraumatic eyeball rupture receiving dermis-fat graft after early implant exposure. The present case with multiple penetrating keratoplasty history underwent emergent evisceration and silicon sphere implantation due to nontraumatic eyeball rupture with severe uvea prolapse. The surrounding corneal tissue of the rupture aperture was almost unidentified before the operation. Deep superior sulcus syndrome and orbital implant exposure developed 2 months after the operation; hence, orbital reconstruction and dermis-fat graft transplantation were performed. Orbital reconstruction and orbital implant exposure management are discussed in the content.
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A rare case of Bardet–Biedl syndrome p. 138
Shrinkhal , Anupam Singh, Ajai Agrawal, Sanjeev Kumar Mittal, Hemlata Udenia, Ghawghawe Harshad Bandu
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_62_19  
We report here a rare case of Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS). A 7-year-old boy was diagnosed to have BBS based on the clinical features: retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento, obesity, postaxial polydactyly, syndactyly, and hypogenitalism. It was associated with mild hepatomegaly with deranged liver function test and mild renal involvement radiologically, high-arched palate, and low intelligence quotient. The patient was prescribed proper refractive correction and subjected to multidisciplinary management. BBS has ocular and systemic manifestations, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to treatment.
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Navigation-assisted endoscopic surgery of lacrimal sac tumor p. 141
Cheng-Hsien Chang, Wei-Ning Ku, Wei-Hsun Kung, Yute Huang, Chun-Chi Chiang, Hui-Ju Lin, Yi-Yu Tsai
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_65_19  
Tumor of lacrimal sac invading into orbit has to be removed carefully to avoid injuring the eyeball, optic nerve, and extraocular muscles. Transnasal endoscopic-assisted tumor excision is a method to remove the tumor from the nasal cavity through the lacrimal sac to the orbit in one procedure. A 55-year-old female patient with thyroid carcinoma removed more than 10 years ago. She recently had a swollen submandibular lymph node enlargement, which was pathologically diagnosed as metastatic carcinoma. Follow-up investigation showed a tumor in the ipsilateral lacrimal sac with invasion into adjacent orbit and nasal cavity. The tumor was removed through image-guided surgery (IGS), navigation-assisted transnasal endoscopic-assisted excision. The tumor was removed as much as possible. The eyeball, extraocular muscles, and optic nerve were not injured in the surgery. Postoperative swelling was minimal with mild nasal hemorrhage. No ecchymosis and conjunctiva chemosis and eyelid swelling was noticed. Ocular motility was full without diplopia. Although exenteration and partial maxillectomy were suggested after pathological result showed a carcinoma of lacrimal sac, patient did not want these extensive surgery immediately. On patient request to reserve the eyeball function, navigation-assisted transnasal endoscopic excision is a safe and efficient method for the preliminary surgery. This case of orbital tumor excision using endoscope and IGS navigation system is the first case by Taiwan ophthalmologists.
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Giant craniofacial osteoma with orbital invasion p. 144
Yi-Hua Chen, Yueh-Ju Tsai
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_74_19  
Craniofacial osteomas, which involve orbits, can cause several problems, such as displacement of the globe, diplopia, and refractive changes. We report the case of a young man with diplopia and blurred vision, with a giant osteoma occupying right frontal and ethmoid sinuses, encroaching into his right orbit. The symptoms resolved 3 months after surgery. Our case highlights the successful surgery for a symptomatic craniofacial osteoma with orbital invasion.
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Late spontaneous bilateral intraocular lens subluxation accompanied with intraocular pressure elevation in a patient with acromegaly p. 147
Yin-Hsi Chang, San-Ni Chen
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_76_19  
A 53-year-old male with newly diagnosed acromegaly came to our clinic with the chief complaint of diplopia. He had the past ocular history of uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the right eye 17 years ago and left eye 15 years ago. Postoperative examination showed remarkable improvement in visual acuity. Two years ago, he developed elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes, which was well-controlled with the use of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5%. At the clinic, slit-lamp examination revealed inferiorly subluxated IOL bilaterally. The patient received IOL repositioning with pars plana vitrectomy and scleral fixation in the left eye smoothly. We hypothesize that excess growth hormone is associated with dysregulation of fibrillin, resulting in zonular weakness, which causes late bilateral IOL subluxation. Elevated IOP may also be related to acromegaly. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the association between IOL subluxation and acromegaly.
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