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A treatment protocol for minimizing duration and complications of adenoviral epidemic keratoconjunctivitis

1 Department of Ophthalmology, KMC, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, KMC, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Chidanand Kulkarni,
Department of Ophthalmology, KMC, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal - 576 104, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjo.tjo_66_19

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the treatment protocol of topical 2.5% Povidone-Iodine (PovI) and 0.1% fluorometholone (FluM) for Adenoviral Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) in reducing the duration and severity of the disease as compared to conventional treatment. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective case–control study. METHODS: Cases were defined as patients with EKC receiving the treatment protocol and conjunctival swab taken for polymerase chain reaction. Controls were defined as similar patients receiving conventional treatment protocol. Forty-one cases and 35 controls were identified for analysis. Cases were treated with a protocol using 2.5% povidone-iodine eye drops and 0.1% FluM eye drops. Controls received conventional treatment until resolution of signs and symptoms. Both the groups were followed up for 1 month. Data collected were analyzed for effect of the two treatment protocols on the duration of EKC, rate of recovery, and incidence of complications. RESULTS: The treatment protocol was significantly better than conventional treatment protocol in achieving cure (P = 0.002) with large effect size. The proportion of cases achieving cure was significantly higher with treatment protocol (64% vs. 11% at 5 days, P < 0.001) by 5 days. There was a significant reduction of the subepithelial infiltrates (SEI) incidence group (10% vs. 57%, P < 0.001). There were no SEI at 1 month in the treatment group (0% vs. 31%). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment protocol used in our study can significantly reduce the severity and duration of EKC. It can prevent chronic keratitis in majority of cases. Since povidone-iodine is nonspecific and virucidal for adenovirus, this therapy can be used for other types of adenoviral conjunctivitis.

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