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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-12

Basic science review of birth tissue uses in ophthalmology

1 R&D Department, TissueTech Inc; Department of Ophthalmology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA
2 R&D Department, TissueTech Inc., Miami, Florida, USA
3 R&D Department, TissueTech Inc; Ocular Surface Center and Ocular Surface Research Education Foundation, Miami, FL, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Scheffer C. G. Tseng
Ocular Surface Center, Ocular Surface Research Education Foundation, and R&D Department of TissueTech Inc., Miami, FL
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjo.tjo_4_20

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The birth tissue is predominantly comprised of amniotic membrane (AM) and umbilical cord (UC), which share the same cell origin as the fetus. These versatile biological tissues have been used to treat a wide range of conjunctival and corneal conditions since 1940. The therapeutic benefits of the birth tissue stem from its anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties that orchestrate regenerative healing. Although the birth tissue also contains many cytokines, growth factors, and proteins, the heavy chain 1–hyaluronic acid/pentraxin 3 (HC–HA/PTX3) matrix has been identified to be a major active tissue component responsible for AM/UC's multifactorial therapeutic actions. HC–HA/PTX3 complex is abundantly present in fresh and cryopreserved AM/UC, but not in dehydrated tissue. In this review, we discuss the tissue anatomy, the molecular mechanism of action based on HC–HA/PTX3 to explain their therapeutic potentials, and the various forms available in ophthalmology.

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