|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 16-24
Conservative treatments for acute nonarteritic central retinal artery occlusion: Do they work?
Rahul A Sharma1, Nancy J Newman2, Valerie Biousse3
1 Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
2 Department of Ophthalmology; Department of Neurology; Department of Neurological Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
3 Department of Ophthalmology; Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
|Date of Submission||30-Jul-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||10-Sep-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||06-Nov-2020|
Dr. Rahul A Sharma
Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit, Emory Eye Center, The Emory Clinic, 1365-B Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30322
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Acute central retinal arterial occlusion has a very poor visual prognosis. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of evidence to support the use of any of the so-called “conservative” treatment options for CRAO, and the use of thrombolytics remains controversial. In this review, we address a variety of these “conservative” pharmacologic treatments (pentoxifylline, isosorbide dinitrate, and acetazolamide) and nonpharmacologic approaches (carbogen, hyperbaric oxygen, ocular massage, anterior chamber paracentesis, laser embolectomy, and hemodilution) that have been proposed as potential treatments of this condition. We conclude that the available evidence for all treatments is insufficient to conclude that any treatment will influence the natural history of this disorder. Management of CRAO patients should instead focus on reducing the risk of subsequent ischemic events, including cerebral stroke. Certain patients may be considered for acute treatment with thrombolytics, although further research must clarify the efficacy, safety, and optimal use of these therapies.
Keywords: Acute stroke, central retinal artery occlusion, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, thrombolysis
|How to cite this article:|
Sharma RA, Newman NJ, Biousse V. Conservative treatments for acute nonarteritic central retinal artery occlusion: Do they work?. Taiwan J Ophthalmol 2021;11:16-24
|How to cite this URL:|
Sharma RA, Newman NJ, Biousse V. Conservative treatments for acute nonarteritic central retinal artery occlusion: Do they work?. Taiwan J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Apr 23];11:16-24. Available from: https://www.e-tjo.org/text.asp?2021/11/1/16/299971
| Introduction|| |
Acute central retinal arterial occlusion (CRAO) typically causes permanent, profound visual loss and therefore qualifies as a true ophthalmic emergency. Occurrences of CRAO are most often due to emboli originating from the heart, carotid arteries, or aortic arch (termed “nonarteritic”). Less common, but even more concerning, are CRAOs caused by vasculitis (termed “arteritic” and usually the result of giant cell arteritis), a mechanism that is outside of the scope of this review.
The role of the ophthalmologist in the management of acute CRAO is essential and has been extensively described. This discussion is crucial, as the consequences of a CRAO extend far beyond the visual system. Ophthalmologists must recognize CRAO as the ocular equivalent of a stroke of the cerebral vasculature and manage patients with an appropriate level of urgency; patients with CRAO have a high risk of experiencing concurrent or subsequent ischemia to other end organs, especially the brain.,,,
Even for ophthalmologists aware of the systemic and neurologic implications of CRAO, the approach to treatment of this condition remains an issue of great uncertainty. Secondary risk prevention is an essential component of CRAO management but is one that relies primarily on the input of nonophthalmic practitioners (primarily stroke neurologists). There is growing optimism regarding thrombolysis as an evidenced-based treatment for acute CRAO, but there is certainly no consensus regarding the many other treatments that have been described in the literature. Thus, one crucial issue of greatest concern to ophthalmologists remains unanswered: Which acute treatments, if any, should be offered to patients to maximize the potential for visual recovery?
In 2009, a Cochrane review concluded that various so-called “conservative” treatment approaches for CRAO (e.g., sublingual isosorbide dinitrate, pentoxifylline, methylprednisolone, acetazolamide, mannitol, anterior chamber paracentesis, inhalation of a carbogen, hyperbaric oxygen [HBO], ocular massage, and globe compression) are no better than placebo. A subsequent meta-analysis of 8 studies, including 419 patients who received ocular massage, anterior chamber paracentesis, and/or hemodilution, demonstrated a significantly lower visual recovery rate among treated patients compared to the natural history control group (P < 0.001), with a number needed to harm of 10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.8–17.4). Accordingly, no conservative therapy is recommended by the current American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Practice Pattern on this topic.
Our review outlines in detail the most up-to-date evidence regarding the available conservative treatment approaches (treatments not involving intravenous or intra-arterial thrombolysis). This article also does not address the management of iatrogenic CRAO, such as CRAO caused by hyaluronic acid fillers.
| What is the Natural History of a Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion?|| |
Patients with CRAO typically present with painless, severe monocular vision loss. The final visual acuity in patients with CRAO ranges from near normal (in a minority of patients with an accessory perfusion of the macula via a cilioretinal artery) to counting fingers or worse; 93.2% of patients with nonarteritic CRAO without cilioretinal artery sparing will have a final visual acuity of counting fingers or poorer. Patients tend to experience only a limited degree of spontaneous visual improvement, typically in the first 7 days following vision loss, although it is likely that some CRAO patients experience spontaneous recovery after a few hours of visual loss and do not seek medical care. Immediate involvement of an ophthalmologist is necessary for a definite diagnosis.
| How Are Acute Retinal Ischemic Events Currently Managed?|| |
Numerous recent publications,, have highlighted the need to manage patients with acute retinal ischemic events in a similar manner to those patients with acute cerebral ischemia. However, treatments vary tremendously depending on whether patients are first evaluated by neurologists or ophthalmologists, as shown in a recent U. S. survey. In 2017, only 20% of US hospitals had a formal policy in place. The approach to treatment varied widely: intravenous fibrinolysis was an available treatment option at 52% of institutions and was a preferred treatment modality at 36% of centers; other treatments, such as anterior chamber paracentesis, ocular massage, and HBO, were offered 42%, 66%, and 7% of the time, respectively. The most recent Practice Pattern guideline from the AAO recommends that patients with acute nonarteritic CRAO be immediately sent to the nearest stroke center for consideration of an acute intervention but also acknowledged that there are no proven therapies or treatments at this time.
| What is the Therapeutic Window for Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion Treatment?|| |
One challenge in evaluating potential therapies for CRAO involves the uncertainty regarding retinal tolerance time or the duration of retinal ischemia, after which irreversible infarction occurs. Hayreh's research in nonhuman primates indicated that the ganglion cell layer will survive without infarction if central retinal artery perfusion is restored within 90–240 min following experimental occlusion.,, However, there has been some criticism of the validity of Hayreh's experimental results, with other authors suggesting that retinal infarction occurs much sooner (perhaps within as little as 12 min) following a complete CRAO. A shorter retinal tolerance time undermines the result of some studies which have purported visual benefit of CRAO treatments given up to 24–48 h after occlusion occurs., Regardless, it is apparent that any treatment for CRAO should be undertaken as rapidly as possible to maximize the preservation of tissue that is ischemic but not yet infarcted, analogous to the rescue of the ischemic penumbra in cerebral stroke.
| What is the Role of Thrombolysis in the Management of Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion?|| |
The use of intravenous or intra-arterial thrombolysis as a treatment for acute retinal arterial occlusions has mostly been evaluated in retrospective studies. Only two small randomized controlled trials have been published., Although observations of dramatic visual recovery have been described, most studies have had disappointing results, likely explained by the long treatment windows of beyond 6 h in most studies. Based on the immense success of these therapies in patients with cerebral ischemia, it is not surprising that the enthusiasm for these therapies in the treatment of acute CRAO is high. However, the efficacy and safety of both intravenous and intra-arterial therapies for patients with CRAO are less well known, and further studies are needed before this treatment can be recommended on a routine basis.,
| What “conservative” Therapeutic Options Exist to Treat Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion?|| |
Several nonthrombolytic (or “conservative”) therapies have been described as potential treatments for acute CRAO, but few have been evaluated in prospective, controlled studies. A variety of pharmacologic treatments (pentoxifylline, isosorbide dinitrate, and acetazolamide) and nonpharmacologic approaches (carbogen, HBO, ocular massage, anterior chamber paracentesis, laser embolectomy, and hemodilution) have been studied. Through a variety of potential mechanisms, the common goal of all treatments is to improve or restore retinal circulation before the onset of retinal necrosis. Ophthalmologists may feel compelled to attempt some form of treatment even in the absence of strong evidence, as CRAO patients often experience devastating visual loss and a very limited degree of spontaneous visual recovery in only about 20% of cases.,, However, performing an intervention that has no proven efficacy may result in unintended harm.
Mechanism 1: Increasing blood oxygen tension
HBO is thought to increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the choroidal vasculature, promoting oxygen delivery to ischemic retinal tissues until spontaneous or assisted reperfusion can occur, but the exact pathophysiology remains debated. HBO is typically administered as either a single or multiple sessions of 1.0–2.8 atmosphere absolute for 90 min or more as soon as possible after the onset of vision loss. Its clinical use in the United States remains limited despite a favorable side effect profile, as the treatment requires a specialized HBO chamber (either a single unit or a pressurized room). There are only a few studies that report visual improvement, and most are case reports or small series without a control group [Table 1].,,,,,,,,,,
|Table 1: Summary of main studies (published in English) evaluating hyperbaric oxygen as a therapy for nonarteritic central retinal artery occlusion (minimum of 5 cases)|
Click here to view
A meta-analysis by Wu et al. in 2018 included seven randomized controlled trials of 251 patients treated with some form of “oxygen therapy” for retinal artery occlusions (CRAO or branch retinal artery occlusion [BRAO]). Six studies involved HBO and one involved inhaled carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2) therapy (discussed later in this review). Most HBO studies showed a “low risk of bias,” indicating a high likelihood of statistically valid results. However, five of the six HBO studies included additional treatments (anterior chamber paracentesis, ocular massage, acetazolamide, and/or hemodilution), making it impossible to determine whether HBO in itself has an independently favorable effect on visual outcome. All studies used visual acuity as the primary endpoint. Patients were treated as soon as 30 min, but as late as 5 days, after the onset of symptoms (two studies treated all patients within 12 h, two additional studies treated all patients within 48 h, and the final two studies treated patients as late as 5 days after symptom onset). Oxygen therapy exhibited a significant visual acuity improvement in retinal artery occlusion patients compared with the nonoxygen therapy group (odds ratio, 5.61; 95% CI, 3.60–8.73). This meta-analysis indicates that in a very limited number of studies, oxygen therapy (most often HBO) showed some visual benefit when combined with other therapies.
Risks of HBO treatment primarily involve barotrauma, which refers to stretching and tearing of the tympanic membrane that results from an inability to equalize the pressure gradient between the middle ear and the external environment. In addition, HBO requires specialized equipment and often requires multiple sessions over several days. Given the very limited number of studies indicating the benefit of HBO as a singular therapy for CRAO patients, it cannot be deemed evidence based.
Mechanism 2: Vasodilation
Pentoxifylline is a competitive, nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is thought to decrease red blood cell rigidity, reduce blood viscosity, and reduce the potential for thrombus formation. It has been used in peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and several other conditions involving abnormal regional microcirculation. Its use as a potential therapy for retinal vascular disorders dates back several decades. One randomized controlled trial of ten patients evaluated treatment with oral pentoxifylline (1800 mg daily) in patients with acute CRAO. The authors reported a greater increase in retinal blood flow using duplex scanning and a greater degree of subjective visual improvement in treated patients but did not report visual acuity outcomes. Thus, it cannot be concluded that treatment with pentoxifylline conferred visual improvement in treated patients. The medication is generally safe and well tolerated and is therefore relatively low risk. However, given the paucity of evidence to support its ability to affect visual outcomes, routine use of the medication for CRAO patients is unsubstantiated.
Carbogen therapy (approximately a 95% oxygen/5% carbogen dioxide mixture) has been proposed as a method to improve retinal oxygenation (with inhaled oxygen) while preventing oxygen-induced vasoconstriction and maintaining the dilatation of retinal arterioles (with inhaled carbogen dioxide).,, Carbogen is delivered by mask, typically for 10 min every hour during all waking hours and every 4 h during the night for 48–72 h. Treatment is generally well tolerated, with only a few patients experiencing discomfort due to increased resistance to breathing. However, given the frequent dosing, patients often require hospital admission, which significantly increases the cost of treatment.
In an uncontrolled study in 1980, Augsburger and Magargal reported visual recovery to better than 6/30 in 12 of 34 consecutive patients treated with carbogen, but all patients were also treated with anterior chamber paracentesis, lowering of the intraocular pressure, and ocular massage. In 1995, Atebara et al. compared 89 consecutive patients with acute CRAO who were treated with both anterior chamber paracentesis and carbogen (49 patients) or with neither treatment (40 patients) and found no treatment benefit. Results from prior studies have been inconsistent, and there is little evidence to support the use of carbogen therapy at this time.
Sublingual isosorbide dinitrate
Isosorbide dinitrate is a nitrate with long-acting vasodilator properties, most often used in the treatment of angina via sublingual administration. Through the generation of nitric oxide, nitrates have been implicated as contributors to the basal vascular tone of the retina, choroid, and optic nerve. Side effects of the treatment include headache, dizziness, lightheadedness, and nausea. Isosorbide dinitrate (at a dose of 10 mg) has only been evaluated as part of combination treatment approaches for CRAO. To our knowledge, isosorbide dinitrate has never been studied as a singular treatment, and there is little evidence beyond basic scientific rationale to support its use as a treatment for CRAO.
Enhanced external counterpulsation
Enhanced external counterpulsation is a noninvasive procedure intended to increase the perfusion of internal organs. It has been used as a method to reduce myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. The treatment involves applying pressure to the peripheral vascular bed using pneumatic cuffs, which are inflated at the onset of diastole. The result is augmented arterial pressure and increased coronary, cerebral, and ocular perfusion.
In 2004, Werner et al. conducted a prospective, randomized, nonmasked trial assessing the use of enhanced external counterpulsation in twenty patients with retinal artery occlusions. The mean age of occlusion of treated patients was 2.7 + 1.3 days; the mean age of occlusion in the control group was 2.4 + 1.6 days. Ten patients were treated with hemodilution and 2 h of enhanced external counterpulsation; another ten were treated with hemodilution alone. Hemodilution was achieved with 500 mL of IV hydroxyethyl starch or with electrolyte solution. The treatment was well tolerated, with no adverse events. The authors used outcome measures involving the quantification of retinal perfusion (using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry) and found greater perfusion in treated patients. However, this effect was lost 48 h after treatment and was not accompanied by an improvement in visual acuity. Thus, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of this therapy.
Mechanism 3: Dislodging the embolus
Ocular massage, performed either with digital pressure or using a contact lens, is a method intended to create fluctuations in intraocular pressure (IOP) and promote the dislodgment of the causative embolus. The embolus then either disintegrates or migrates into a peripheral portion of the retinal vasculature, allowing for retinal reperfusion. The technique of ocular massage involves applying repeated increased pressure to the globe for 10–15 s, followed by “a sudden release with an in-and-out movement using a 3-mirror contact lens for 3–5 min.” Some authors have proposed continuing the massage for up to 15–20 min. Anecdotal case reports have reported visual restoration with this treatment. To our knowledge, no recent studies have evaluated the efficacy of ocular massage as a singular therapy; all studies have used the treatment in conjunction with other therapies, and these studies have not yielded strong evidence to suggest benefit.
Neodymium: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser embolysis
In CRAO cases with a large causative embolus visible on fundus examination, physical breakdown (embolysis) or complete dislodgment (embolectomy) using photodisruption has been attempted as methods to restore retinal perfusion. Emboli are visible in approximately 20% of cases of CRAO. Neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers have been primarily used, with the standard technique involving the use of a fundus contact lens, with the laser focused slightly posterior to the visible arterial wall at the site of the embolus. Laser energy can be up-titrated to achieve the desired effect.
The use of this method is primarily based on the favorable results of five individual case reports,,,, and one case series involving 10 CRAO patients. However, an animal model demonstrated that laser did not reliably disrupt visible emboli, and a 2017 meta-analysis of 61 cases of CRAO and BRAO reported that although noncontrolled studies did suggest a visual improvement (average initial acuity of 20/252 and average postprocedure acuity of 20/30), complications including vitreous and preretinal hemorrhage occurred in 57% of cases. Given the lack of a control group, the heterogeneity among these studies, and the inclusion of both CRAO and BRAO cases, there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of this therapy. Furthermore, the not insignificant complication rate associated with the procedure indicates that it should be attempted with caution, if at all.
Mechanism 4: Increasing retinal artery perfusion pressure
Anterior chamber paracentesis
The premise to support anterior chamber paracentesis suggests that rapidly lowering the IOP dilates the retinal vessels, increases the retinal perfusion pressure, and thus promotes reperfusion of the retinal arterial system.,, Such changes have been visualized using ocular coherence tomography angiography of the retinal circulation.
Paracentesis is typically performed after instillation of topical anesthesia (i.e., tetracaine) and a prophylactic antimicrobial agent, such as topical antibiotics or povidone-iodine. A 27G needle on a tuberculin syringe or a paracentesis blade can then be used to puncture the cornea to drain a small volume of aqueous fluid. The procedure may be performed at the slit lamp or under an operating microscope. A successful paracentesis should remove only the aqueous volume necessary to lower IOP to the desired level. The normal anterior chamber volume is only 250 μL, so the practitioner may opt to remove small volumes (e.g., 50 μL) at a time to achieve sufficient IOP lowering while still maintaining some volume of the anterior chamber. Flattening the anterior chamber would predispose the patient to many of the primary risks of the procedure, which include inadvertent ocular trauma (to the cornea, lens, or iris), corneal decompensation due to iridocorneal touch, intraocular hypotony (with risk of choroidal folds and choroidal effusion or hemorrhage), and infection.
The use of anterior chamber paracentesis in patients with CRAO was first described in 1888, when Mules reported a patient who had an embolus migrate distally in the retinal arterial system after undergoing the treatment, mitigating the degree of vision loss. As noted above, Atebara et al. in 1995 reported that anterior chamber paracentesis and carbogen together offered little benefit. In 2014, a 13-year retrospective cohort study compared 15 CRAO patients receiving “conservative therapies” with 59 CRAO patients receiving the same treatments and an anterior chamber paracentesis within 6 h of visual loss and found no improvement of mean visual acuity in patients undergoing the procedure.
Intravenous, oral, and topical intraocular pressure lowering medications
In 1993, Rassam et al. demonstrated an increased retinal blood flow using laser Doppler velocimetry in ten healthy volunteers treated with 500 mg of intravenous acetazolamide and proposed that the reduction in IOP was responsible. Lowering of the IOP is an attractive potential treatment option given its ease of use and its relatively limited side effect profile. Topical IOP-lowering medications, intravenous acetazolamide (500 mg), 20% intravenous mannitol (1 mg/kg), and 50% oral glycerol (1 mg/kg) have all been used in the treatment of acute CRAO patients.
Topical medications for IOP lowering are generally well tolerated, with variable side effect profiles that can be tailored to the individual patient. However, topical medications are unlikely to achieve the desired degree of IOP lowering within an acceptable time frame. For more rapid IOP lowering, oral and intravenous agents, including mannitol and acetazolamid (most often 500 mg IV), are often used. These medications are associated with a number of bothersome side effects (including fatigue, paresthesia, and a bitter or metallic taste) and may also rarely result in life-threatening complications, including metabolic acidosis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, anaphylaxis, and blood dyscrasias. Despite their extensive side effect profiles, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are routinely used in other ophthalmic conditions, such as acute angle-closure glaucoma, and are therefore familiar to and comfortably used by most ophthalmologists.
Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data to support the use of pharmacologic IOP-lowering medications in acute CRAO. Most supportive studies are case reports or series that evaluated pharmacologic IOP lowering in conjunction with other treatments,,,, and none have established the benefit of IOP lowering as a singular therapy.
Combination therapies (three or more modalities)
In 1999, Rumelt et al. treated 11 patients with CRAO of < 48-h duration with a multitherapy regimen that included ocular massage, sublingual isosorbide dinitrate, intravenous acetazolamide, intravenous mannitol or oral glycerol, anterior chamber paracentesis, and intravenous methylprednisolone followed by intravenous streptokinase and retrobulbar tolazoline. The retinal flow was evaluated via contact lens fundoscopy after each treatment. Visual acuity and retinal artery supply (via gross examination) improved in 8 of 11 patients, all of whom had symptoms for < 12 h. There was no control group in the study, and it could not be shown that any individual treatment (or combination of treatments) had influenced the natural course of the disease.
Mueller et al. reviewed 102 patients who had received a variety of conservative treatments (oral acetylsalicylate, oral acetazolamide, ocular message, hemodilution, oral pentoxifylline, topical beta-blocker medication, anterior chamber paracentesis, and subcutaneous heparin). The mean number of treatments received was 2.5 + 1.4. A multivariate stepwise regression model did not reveal any single or combination treatment as a significant factor in the improvement of visual acuity.
The 2010 multicenter EAGLE randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of local intra-arterial thrombolysis as a treatment for CRAO. Control patients in the study were treated with isovolemic hemodilution, ocular massage, topical timolol 0.5%, intravenous acetazolamide (500 mg), low-dose heparin, and acetylsalicylic acid; 60% of patients did experience a clinically significant visual improvement (>0.3 logMAR). As this group was included as controls to thrombolytic therapy, it cannot be concluded that conservative treatments altered the natural history.
| Conclusion|| |
There is a paucity of evidence to support the use of “conservative” treatment options for CRAO. The available evidence for all treatments outlined in this review is insufficient to conclude that any treatment will influence the natural history of the disease. Given this lack of effective treatments to reverse visual loss, the highest priority currently for patients with acute, nonarteritic CRAO is to reduce the risk of subsequent recurrent cerebral and cardiovascular events. Emerging treatments such as HBO and thrombolysis to reverse permanent retinal ischemia should only be considered within a short time window after the onset of visual loss, likely within 4 h if one extrapolates from the cumulative knowledge gained from studying and treating cerebral ischemia. Therefore, efforts at educating the medical community and patients regarding the need for emergent evaluation of patients with acute visual loss related to acute retinal ischemia are essential.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interests of this paper.
Data for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using the search terms: “acetazolamide,” “anterior chamber paracentesis,” “branch retinal artery occlusion,” “carbogen,” “central retinal artery occlusion,” “enhanced external counterpulsation,” “hemodilution,” “hyperbaric oxygen,” “isosorbide dinitrate,” “laser embolectomy,” “Nd: YAG laser embolysis,” “ocular massage,” “pentoxifylline,” “retinal vascular occlusions,” and “thrombolysis.” Articles published in English between 1960 and 2020 were included.
| References|| |
Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB. Central retinal artery occlusion: Visual outcome. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;140:376-91.
Brown SM, Lark KK. Re: Biousse et al
. Management of acute retinal ischemia: Follow the guidelines! Ophthalmology 2018;125:1597-607.
Helenius J, Arsava EM, Goldstein JN, Cestari DM, Buonanno FS, Rosen BR, et al
. Concurrent acute brain infarcts in patients with monocular visual loss. Ann Neurol 2012;72:286-93.
Golsari A, Bittersohl D, Cheng B, Griem P, Beck C, Hassenstein A, et al
. Silent brain infarctions and leukoaraiosis in patients with retinal ischemia: A prospective single-center observational study. Stroke 2017;48:1392-6.
Tanaka K, Uehara T, Kimura K, Okada Y, Hasegawa Y, Tanahashi N, et al
. Features of patients with transient monocular blindness: A multicenter retrospective study in Japan. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2014;23:e151-5.
Biousse V. Acute retinal arterial ischemia: An emergency often ignored. Am J Ophthalmol 2014;157:1119-21.
Fraser SG, Adams W. Interventions for acute non-arteritic central retinal artery occlusion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009:1-14.
Schrag M, Youn T, Schindler J, Kirshner H, Greer D. Intravenous fibrinolytic therapy in central retinal artery occlusion: A patient-level meta-analysis. JAMA Neurol 2015;72:1148-54.
Flaxel CJ, Adelman RA, Bailey ST, Fawzi A, Lim JI, Vemulakonda GA, et al
. Retinal and ophthalmic artery occlusions preferred practice pattern®. Ophthalmology 2020;127:P259-87.
Kapoor KM, Kapoor P, Heydenrych I, Bertossi D. Vision loss associated with hyaluronic acid fillers: A systematic review of literature. Aesthetic Plast Surg 2020;44:929-44.
Dumitrascu OA, Newman NJ, Biousse V. Thrombolysis for central retinal artery occlusion in 2020: Time is vision! J Neuro-Ophthalmol 2020;40:333-45.
Youn TS, Lavin P, Patrylo M, Schindler J, Kirshner H, Greer DM, et al
. Current treatment of central retinal artery occlusion: A national survey. J Neurol 2018;265:330-5.
Olsen TW, Pulido JS, Folk JC, Hyman L, Flaxel CJ, Adelman RA. Retinal and Ophthalmic Artery Occlusions Preferred Practice Pattern®. Ophthalmology 2017;124:P120-43.
Hayreh SS, Weingeist TA. Experimental occlusion of the central artery of the retina. I. Ophthalmoscopic and fluorescein fundus angiographic studies. Br J Ophthalmol 1980;64:896-912.
Hayreh SS, Weingeist TA. Experimental occlusion of the central artery of the retina. IV: Retinal tolerance time to acute ischaemia. Br J Ophthalmol 1980;64:818-25.
Hayreh SS, Jonas JB. Optic disk and retinal nerve fiber layer damage after transient central retinal artery occlusion: An experimental study in rhesus monkeys. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;129:786-95.
Tobalem S, Schutz JS, Chronopoulos A. Central retinal artery occlusion-Rethinking retinal survival time. BMC Ophthalmol 2018;18:101.
Richard G, Lerche RC, Knospe V, Zeumer H. Treatment of retinal arterial occlusion with local fibrinolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Ophthalmology 1999;106:768-73.
Augsburger JJ, Magargal LE. Visual prognosis following treatment of acute central retinal artery obstruction. Br J Ophthalmol 1980;64:913-7.
Schumacher M, Schmidt D, Jurklies B, Gall C, Wanke I, Schmoor C, et al
. Central retinal artery occlusion: Local intra-arterial fibrinolysis versus conservative treatment, a multicenter randomized trial. Ophthalmology 2010;117:1367-750.
Chen CS, Lee AW, Campbell B, Lee T, Paine M, Fraser C, et al
. Efficacy of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator in central retinal artery occlusion: Report from a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke 2011;42:2229-34.
Sharma RA, Newman NJ, Biousse V. New concepts on acute ocular ischemia. Curr Opin Neurol 2019;32:19-24.
Mac Grory B, Lavin P, Kirshner H, Schrag M. Thrombolytic therapy for acute central retinal artery occlusion. Stroke 2020;51:687-95.
Rumelt S, Dorenboim Y, Rehany U. Aggressive systematic treatment for central retinal artery occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol 1999;128:733-8.
Schmidt D, Schumacher M, Wakhloo AK. Microcatheter urokinase infusion in central retinal artery occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol 1992;113:429-34.
Atebara NH, Brown GC, Cater J. Efficacy of anterior chamber paracentesis and Carbogen in treating acute nonarteritic central retinal artery occlusion. Ophthalmology 1995;102:2029-34.
Cugati S, Varma DD, Chen CS, Lee AW. Treatment options for central retinal artery occlusion. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2013;15:63-77.
Wu X, Chen S, Li S, Zhang J, Luan D, Zhao S, et al
. Oxygen therapy in patients with retinal artery occlusion: A meta-analysis. PLoS One 2018;13:e0202154.
Beiran I, Goldenberg I, Adir Y, Tamir A, Shupak A, Miller B. Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy for retinal artery occlusion. Eur J Ophthalmol 2001;11:345-50.
Cope A, Eggert JV, O'Brien E. Retinal artery occlusion: Visual outcome after treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. Diving Hyperb Med 2011;41:135-8.
Menzel-Severing J, Siekmann U, Weinberger A, Roessler G, Walter P, Mazinani B. Early hyperbaric oxygen treatment for nonarteritic central retinal artery obstruction. Am J Ophthalmol 2012;153:454-900.
Elder MJ, Rawstron JA, Davis M. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of acute retinal artery occlusion. Diving Hyperb Med 2017;47:233-8.
Hadanny A, Maliar A, Fishlev G, Bechor Y, Bergan J, Friedman M, et al
. Reversibility of retinal ischemia due to central retinal artery occlusion by hyperbaric oxygen. Clin Ophthalmol 2017;11:115-25.
Bagli BS, Çevik SG, Çevik MT. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in central retinal artery occlusion. Undersea Hyperb Med 2018;45:421-5.
Coelho P, Ferreira AP, Golcalves R, Menezes C, Teixeira C, Seara E, et al
. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy following central retinal artery occlusion-A retrospective case series analysis. Oftalmologia 2018;42(2).
Masters TC, Westgard BC, Hendriksen SM, Decanini A, Abel AS, Logue CJ, et al
. Case series of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for central retinal artery occlusion. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2019. [Online ahead of print].
Lopes AS, Basto R, Henriques S, Colaço L, Costa E Silva F, Prieto I, et al
. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in retinal arterial occlusion: Epidemiology, clinical approach, and visual outcomes. Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2019;2019:1-5.
Gupta M. Efficacy of HBOT in central retinal artery occlusion: Visual outcome. Ophthalmol Allied Sci 2019;5:180-5.
Kim YS, Nam MS, Park EJ, Lee Y, Kim H, Kim SH, et al
. The effect of adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with central retinal artery occlusion. Undersea Hyperb Med 2020;47:57-64.
Seiffge D, Kiesewetter H. Effect of pentoxifylline on single red cell deformability. Klin Wochenschr 1981;59:1271-2.
Ward A, Clissold SP. Pentoxifylline. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its therapeutic efficacy. Drugs 1987;34:50-97.
Iwafune Y, Yoshimoto H. Clinical use of pentoxifylline in haemorrhagic disorders of the retina. Pharmatherapeutica 1980;2:429-38.
Incandela L, Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Steigerwalt R, De Sanctis MT, Nicolaides AN, et al
. Treatment of vascular retinal disease with pentoxifylline: A controlled, randomized trial. Angiology 2002;53 (Suppl 1):S31-4.
McCarty MF, O'Keefe JH, DiNicolantonio JJ. Pentoxifylline for vascular health: A brief review of the literature. Open Heart 2016;3:e000365.
Hickam JB, Frayser R. Studies of the retinal circulation in man. Observations on vessel diameter, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and mean circulation time. Circulation 1966;33:302-16.
Harino S, Grunwald JE, Petrig BJ, Riva CE. Rebreathing into a bag increases human retinal macular blood velocity. Br J Ophthalmol 1995;79:380-3.
Arend O, Harris A, Martin BJ, Holin M, Wolf S. Retinal blood velocities during carbogen breathing using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1994;72:332-6.
Schaumann W. Pharmacokinetics of isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide-5-mononitrate. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1989;27:445-53.
Goldstein IM, Ostwald P, Roth S. Nitric oxide: A review of its role in retinal function and disease. Vision Res 1996;36:2979-94.
Mann RM, Riva CE, Stone RA, Barnes GE, Cranstoun SD. Nitric oxide and choroidal blood flow regulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1995;36:925-30.
Schmidl D, Boltz A, Kaya S, Palkovits S, Told R, Napora KJ, et al
. Role of nitric oxide in optic nerve head blood flow regulation during an experimental increase in intraocular pressure in healthy humans. Exp Eye Res 2013;116:247-53.
Werner D, Michalk F, Harazny J, Hugo C, Daniel WG, Michelson G. Accelerated reperfusion of poorly perfused retinal areas in central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion after a short treatment with enhanced external counterpulsation. Retina 2004;24:541-7.
Arora RR, Chou TM, Jain D, Fleishman B, Crawford L, McKiernan T, et al
. The multicenter study of enhanced external counterpulsation (MUST-EECP): Effect of EECP on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia and anginal episodes. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:1833-40.
Ffytche TJ. A rationalization of treatment of central retinal artery occlusion. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1974;94:468-79.
Duxbury O, Bhogal P, Cloud G, Madigan J. Successful treatment of central retinal artery thromboembolism with ocular massage and intravenous acetazolamide. BMJ Case Rep 2014;2014:1-3.
Opremcak E, Rehmar AJ, Ridenour CD, Borkowski LM, Kelley JK. Restoration of retinal blood flow via translumenal Nd: YAG embolysis/embolectomy (TYL/E) for central and branch retinal artery occlusion. Retina 2008;28:226-35.
Reynard M, Hanscom TA. Neodymium: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser arteriotomy with embolectomy for central retinal artery occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;137:196-8.
Feist RM, Emond TL. Translumenal Nd: YAG laser embolysis for central retinal artery occlusion. Retina 2005;25:797-9.
Görsch I, Haritoglou C. Acute visual loss following central retinal vein occlusion. MMW Fortschr Med 2018;160:51-2.
Akduman L, Currie M, Scanlon C, Grant A, Cetin EN. ND-yag laser arteriotomy for central retinal artery occlusion. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2013;7:325-7.
Mukhtar A, Malik S, Khan MS, Ishaq M. Nd YAG laser embolysis in a young woman with hemiretinal artery occlusion. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016;26:629-30.
Ciulla TA, D'Amico DJ, Miller JW. Laser photodisruption of visible retinal artery emboli. Br J Ophthalmol 1995;79:964-5.
Man V, Hecht I, Talitman M, Hilely A, Midlij M, Burgansky-Eliash Z, et al
. Treatment of retinal artery occlusion using transluminal Nd: YAG laser: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017;255:1869-77.
Fieß A, Cal Ö, Kehrein S, Halstenberg S, Frisch I, Steinhorst UH. Anterior chamber paracentesis after central retinal artery occlusion: A tenable therapy? BMC Ophthalmol 2014;14:28.
Hwang CK, Kolomeyer AM, Brucker AJ. Optical coherence tomography angiography of a central retinal artery occlusion before and after anterior chamber paracentesis. Ophthalmology 2017;124:608.
Rassam SM, Patel V, Kohner EM. The effect of acetazolamide on the retinal circulation. Eye (Lond) 1993;7 (Pt 5):697-702.
Liu GT, Glaser JS, Schatz NJ. High-dose methylprednisolone and acetazolamide for visual loss in pseudotumor cerebri. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;118:88-96.
Mueller AJ, Neubauer AS, Schaller U, Kampik A, European Assessment Group for Lysis in the Eye. Evaluation of minimally invasive therapies and rationale for a prospective randomized trial to evaluate selective intra-arterial lysis for clinically complete central retinal artery occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121:1377-81.