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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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Investigation of the repeatability of tear osmolarity using an I-PEN osmolarity device


1 Department of Optometry, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Cornea Research Chair, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Raied Fagehi,
Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, P O Box 10219, Riyadh 11433
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjo.tjo_65_20

PURPOSE: To investigate the repeatability of tear osmolarity in healthy Saudi subjects using an I-PEN osmolarity device. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty typical male subjects with healthy eyes (27.4 ± 4.9 years) participated in the study. Eye abnormalities were tested with a slit lamp, and eye comfort was determined with the surface disease index. Measurements of the tear break-up time and phenol red thread tests were used for as exclusion criteria. The tear osmolarity test, using an I-PEN osmolarity system, was performed three times in the right eye of each subject with a 5 min' gap between tests. RESULTS: The average osmolarity test score was 303.8 ± 4.8 mOsm/L. Tear osmolarity measurements showed tear osmolarity of 280–299 mOsm/L, 300–309 mOsm/L, and 310–329 mOsm/L in 14 (46.7%), three (10%), and 13 (43.3%) subjects, respectively. Correlations among the three I-PEN measurements were significant (Spearman's correlation coefficient; r = 0.036, 0.501, and 0.603; P = 0.050, 0.006, and 0.001, respectively). The mean coefficient of variance among the three measurements was 4.4%. CONCLUSION: The mean measurement of an I-PEN tear osmolarity was 303.8 ± 4.8 mOsm/L which is in agreement with the range of those reported for healthy subjects. The I-PEN is reliable and has the advantage of portability (hand-held) compared to the other osmolarity systems.


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    -  Fagehi R
    -  Al-Bishry AB
    -  Alanazi MA
    -  Abusharha A
    -  El-Hiti GA
    -  Masmali AM
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