Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology

: 2022  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3--11

Thyroid eye disease: From pathogenesis to targeted therapies

Jin Sook Yoon, Don O Kikkawa 
 Department of Ophthalmology, The Institute of Vision Research, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; Division of Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of California San Diego, California, United States of America

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jin Sook Yoon
Department of Ophthalmology, Severance Hospital, Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722

Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of autoimmune Graves' hyperthyroidism. TED is a debilitating and potentially blinding disease with unclear pathogenesis. Autoreactive inflammatory reactions targeting orbital fibroblasts (OFs) lead to the expansion of orbital adipose tissues and extraocular muscle swelling within the fixed bony orbit. There are many recent advances in the understating of molecular pathogenesis of TED. The production of autoantibodies to cross-linked thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) activates OFs to produce significant cytokines and chemokines and hyaluronan production and to induce adipocyte differentiation. In moderately severe active TED patients, multicenter clinical trials showed that inhibition of IGF-1R with teprotumumab was unprecedentedly effective with minimal side effects. The emergence of novel biologics resulted in a paradigm shift in the treatment of TED. We here review the literature on advances of pathogenesis of TED and promising therapeutic targets and drugs.

How to cite this article:
Yoon JS, Kikkawa DO. Thyroid eye disease: From pathogenesis to targeted therapies.Taiwan J Ophthalmol 2022;12:3-11

How to cite this URL:
Yoon JS, Kikkawa DO. Thyroid eye disease: From pathogenesis to targeted therapies. Taiwan J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 14 ];12:3-11
Available from: https://www.e-tjo.org/article.asp?issn=2211-5056;year=2022;volume=12;issue=1;spage=3;epage=11;aulast=Yoon;type=0