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  Most popular articles (Since March 16, 2017)

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Multifocal intraocular lenses: Types, outcomes, complications and how to solve them
Liberdade C Salerno, Mauro C Tiveron, Jorge L Alió
October-December 2017, 7(4):179-184
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_19_17  PMID:29296549
The multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) available are often able to restore visual function and allow spectacle independence after their implantation with great levels of patient satisfaction. The factors associated with the postoperatory success include the careful selection of the patient, the knowledge about the IOLs' design, and their visual performance added to the proper surgical technique and management of possible complications as demonstrated by the evidence available.
  6,916 1,110 10
The diagnostic challenge of evaluating papilledema in the pediatric patient
Brandon McCafferty, Collin M McClelland, Michael S Lee
January-March 2017, 7(1):15-21
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_17_17  PMID:29018749
Pseudopapilledema is a fairly common finding in ophthalmic practice, and in many cases, the diagnosis is straightforward. However, an accurate diagnosis can challenge the most seasoned clinicians, and missing true papilledema can result in life-threatening or vision-threatening consequences. In this review, we describe the clinical findings and a diagnostic algorithm to distinguish pseudopapilledema and papilledema in the pediatric patients. We also describe the clinical evaluation once a diagnosis of papilledema has been established.
  6,833 684 6
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: An update on current management and review of literature
Amit Harishchandra Palkar, Vikas Khetan
April-June 2019, 9(2):72-92
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_35_18  PMID:31198666
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a subtype of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), commonly seen in the Asian population. It is dissimilar in epidemiology, genetic heterogeneity, pathogenesis, natural history, and response to treatment in comparison to nAMD. Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy-based simultaneous fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) with enhanced depth imaging, swept-source OCT, and OCT angiography have improved the ability to detect PCV, understand its pathology, and monitor treatment response. A plethora of literature has discussed the efficacy of photodynamic therapy, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monotherapy, and combination of both, but only a few studies with higher level of evidence and limited follow-up duration are available. This review discusses the understanding of PCV with respect to epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history, imaging techniques, and various treatment options. Recent clinical trials (EVEREST-II and PLANET study) have emphasized that either anti-VEGF monotherapy or combination treatment is equally capable to strike a balance between polyp regression and stabilization of visual acuity. The recurrent nature of the disease, the development of macular atrophy, and the long-term poor visual prognosis despite treatment are concerns that open avenues for further research.
  5,993 717 5
Surgical treatment of unilateral severe simple congenital ptosis
Ju-Hyang Lee, Yoon-Duck Kim
January-March 2018, 8(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_70_17  PMID:29675342
Unilateral congenital ptosis with poor levator function of ≤4 mm continues to be a difficult challenge for the oculoplastic surgeon. Surgical correction can be accomplished with unilateral frontalis suspension, maximal levator resection, or bilateral frontalis suspension with or without levator muscle excision of the normal eyelid. Bilateral frontalis suspension was proposed by Beard and Callahan to overcome the challenge of postoperative asymmetry, allowing symmetrical lagophthalmos on downgaze, postoperatively. However, most surgeons and patients prefer unilateral correction on the abnormal eyelid either with a frontalis suspension or maximal levator resection. Frontalis suspension may be performed through the various surgical techniques using different autogenous or exogenous materials. Autogenous fascia lata is considered the material of choice with low recurrence rates but carries the drawbacks of the difficulty of harvesting and postoperative morbidity from the second surgical site. Recent reports have suggested that maximal levator resection provides improved cosmesis, a more natural contour, and avoids brow scars. Although both treatments have shown to have similar success rates, there is much debate about what the most favorable method for treating severe unilateral ptosis. We review the literature on the various surgical treatments for unilateral severe congenital ptosis, including the rationale, advantages and disadvantages of each technique.
  5,367 503 2
A case of adult-onset tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome presenting with granulomatous panuveitis
Kemal Tekin, Yasemin Ozdamar Erol, Olcay Kurtulan, Dilek Ertoy Baydar
January-March 2020, 10(1):66-70
The tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome is a rare disorder that is probably underdiagnosed in clinical practice. Ocular involvement in TINU syndrome not only presents with the nongranulomatous anterior uveitis in 80% of patients but also manifests as intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis. This case report mentions an adult male patient who presented with granulomatous iridocyclitis with panuveitis and mild renal insufficiency. Workup for connective tissue and infectious diseases was negative for the patient. He was diagnosed with TINU syndrome based on the findings of renal biopsy. Both the uveitis and nephritis promptly responded well to steroid treatment, and there was no recurrence during the follow-up of 24 months.
  5,596 101 -
Optical coherence tomography angiography: Technical principles and clinical applications in ophthalmology
Ahmed M Hagag, Simon S Gao, Yali Jia, David Huang
July-September 2017, 7(3):115-129
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_31_17  PMID:28966909
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a functional extension of OCT that provides information on retinal and choroidal circulations without the need for dye injections. With the recent development of high-speed OCT systems and efficient algorithms, OCTA has become clinically feasible. In this review article, we discuss the technical principles of OCTA, including image processing and artifacts, and its clinical applications in ophthalmology. We summarize recent studies which qualitatively or quantitatively assess disease presentation, progression, and/or response to treatment.
  4,669 895 43
Update on ocular myasthenia gravis in Taiwan
Chao-Wen Lin, Ta-Ching Chen, Jieh-Ren Jou, Lin-Chung Woung
April-June 2018, 8(2):67-73
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_39_17  PMID:30038884
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease involving the neuromuscular junction. Autoantibodies to the acetylcholine receptor or, less frequently, to muscle-specific kinase, attack against the postsynaptic junctional proteins, resulting in fluctuating and variable weakness of muscles. Extraocular, levator palpebrae superioris, and orbicularis oculi muscles are particularly susceptible. The majority of patients with MG present with purely ocular symptoms including ptosis and diplopia initially. About half of these patients progress to generalized disease within 2 years. The prevalence of MG in Taiwan is 140 per million with male to female ratio of 0.7. The incidence rate is higher in the elderly. Several immune-related diseases such as lymphoid malignancy, diabetes, and thyroid diseases are associated with MG in the national population-based studies in Taiwan. Ice pack test, rest test, Tensilon/neostigmine test, circulating antibody measurement, and electrophysiological studies are useful diagnostic tools with variable sensitivity and specificity. For the patients with ocular MG, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are usually the first-line treatment. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressant could provide better disease control and may reduce the risk of conversion to generalized form although there is still some controversy. A thymectomy is also beneficial for ocular MG, especially in refractory cases. The correction of ptosis and strabismus surgery could improve the visual outcome but should be performed only in stable disease.
  4,775 495 1
Pearls and pitfalls in the management of Duane syndrome
Seyhan B Ozkan
January-March 2017, 7(1):3-11
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_20_17  PMID:29018747
Duane syndrome (DS) is a common form of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders. The ocular motility pattern lies in a wide clinical spectrum, and the choice of treatment must be individualized depending on the severity of the clinical findings. There is no perfect method of treatment and no real “cure” in DS. In this paper, the aim is to give some guidelines to the reader for selection of the most appropriate treatment method for the patient.
  4,580 481 6
Correction of presbyopia: An integrated update for the practical surgeon
Marie Joan Therese D. Balgos, Veronica Vargas, Jorge L Alió
July-September 2018, 8(3):121-140
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_53_18  PMID:30294526
Presbyopia results from loss or insufficiency of the eye's accommodative ability, and clinically manifests as the inability to focus near objects on the retina. It is one of the most common causes of visual impairment worldwide especially in adults of productive or working age. Various means of compensating for the loss of accommodative ability have been devised from optical tools such as spectacles and contact lenses, to topical medications and to surgical procedures. A comprehensive search on journal articles about topical and surgical correction of presbyopia was undertaken. The various techniques for presbyopia correction, as enumerated in these articles, are discussed in this paper with the addition of our personal experience and perspective on the future of these techniques.
  4,269 618 6
Glaucoma suspects: A practical approach
Syed Shoeb Ahmad
April-June 2018, 8(2):74-81
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_106_17  PMID:30038885
Glaucoma suspects are controversial clinical dilemmas. These individuals harbor certain risk factors or demonstrate some clinical features suggestive of an increased probability to develop glaucomatous optic atrophy in the future. These characteristics range from high intraocular pressure; optic disc, visual field, or retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities; or abnormal angles to a positive family history of glaucoma and other risk factors. Individuals having these characteristics should be assessed diligently before a diagnosis of glaucoma is made. Glaucoma is a chronic, lifelong condition, having a negative impact on the quality of life, with an increased risk of medication-related side-effects, adverse economic impacts, and the need for lifestyle changes in the patient. Overdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment of such individuals is bereft of any advantage. This review aims to provide a practical blueprint for the proper diagnosis and management of such glaucoma suspects.
  3,952 663 1
Immunoglobulin G4-related ophthalmic disease
Wei-Kuang Yu, Chieh-Chih Tsai, Shu-Ching Kao, Catherine Jui-Ling Liu
January-March 2018, 8(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_12_17  PMID:29675343
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It characterized by distinctive histopathological appearance of dense IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis in one or more organs, simultaneously or subsequently. In cases of ocular adnexal involvement, unique clinicohistopathological features were delineated by recent studies, and IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) is generally recognized as the disease name. A significant proportion of previous labeled idiopathic orbital inflammations and Mikulicz's disease are now consistent with a diagnosis of IgG4-ROD. Increasing studies have accumulated regarding its epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical features, treatment, and the association between lymphoma. In this review, we summarize our present understanding of IgG4-ROD.
  3,823 591 6
Foveal hypoplasia and optical coherence tomographic imaging
Hiroyuki Kondo
October-December 2018, 8(4):181-188
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_101_18  PMID:30637189
Foveal hypoplasia is a retinal disorder in which there is a lack of full development of the morphology of the fovea. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) and functional findings are presented in relation to the underlying genetic and developmental conditions. Recent advancements of high-resolution OCT imaging have unveiled characteristics of foveal hypoplasia that were not detected by conventional imaging methods. An absence of a foveal pit does not necessarily imply poor visual acuity, and the maturation of the cone photoreceptors is important for the visual acuity. Regardless of the degree of the development of the inner retinal layers, the visual acuity can be preserved as in diseases such as Stickler syndrome that is a newly identified retinal disorder associated with foveal hypoplasia.
  3,822 576 5
Neovascular glaucoma: Handling in the future
Hongfang Yang, Xiaobo Yu, Xinghuai Sun
April-June 2018, 8(2):60-66
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_39_18  PMID:30038883
Neovascular glaucoma (NVG), which is refractory to both medical management and surgical intervention, is a disastrous ocular disease for it always ends up with intolerable pain and extinguishing patients' residual visual function. Since insufficient acknowledge of the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of NVG, it has been laying a challenging dilemma of managing NVG in clinical practice for a long time. Along with the progression on some new agents and surgical options targeting certain possible roles in the NVG process, there seems having been some new sights but still much unknown and to be revealed. This review discusses the underlying etiologic diseases of NVG, molecular findings and characteristics of its pathogenic process, as well as the management of NVG in detail. In addition, here represents some of our hypothesis regarding the interesting findings about NVG in clinical practice, aiming to provide some new enlightenment for future research.
  3,731 665 1
Role of tear film biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of dry eye disease
Pak Yui Fong, Kendrick Co Shih, Pun Yuet Lam, Tommy Chung Yan Chan, Vishal Jhanji, Louis Tong
July-September 2019, 9(3):150-159
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_56_19  PMID:31572651
In recent years, there has been increasing scientific interest in the use of tear film biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of dry eye disease (DED), owing to their potential important roles in the pathogenesis of ocular surface damage, as well as the technical feasibility of tear sample collection techniques. An Entrez PubMed search was conducted on March 2, 2019, to include papers investigating the use of tear film biomarkers in DED, and the results were classified according to whether the DED is associated with systemic inflammatory disease or not and further classified within each section according to the molecular nature of the biomarker for further discussion. A total of 58 relevant articles were reviewed. Certain cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-17, and IL-8, were found by a number of studies to consistently reflect disease severity well and had strong correlations with tear film metrics and tests for ocular surface damage in dry eye without systemic inflammatory disease. For dry eye with systemic inflammatory disease, IL-17, IL-8, and IL-1 receptor antagonists were shown to be consistently higher in affected eyes and correlated well with ocular surface disease severity in more than one type of inflammatory disease. With the advancement in technology and lowered costs in the future, tear film biomarker counts would allow better diagnosis and monitoring of DED, as well as facilitate personalized treatment strategies.
  3,774 568 4
Intraocular lens correction of presbyopia
Rebecca Sieburth, Ming Chen
January-March 2019, 9(1):4-17
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_136_18  PMID:30993062
The continued development of intraocular lens (IOL) technology has led to a dramatic improvement in refractive outcomes. New and innovative ways of achieving the desired postoperative refractive goals continue to be developed. This article aims to review the currently available IOL modalities for correction of presbyopia at the time of cataract surgery, including reference to high-quality comparative studies, where available, and discussion of strengths as well as limitations of the currently available IOL technologies. It has been shown that multifocal compared to monofocal IOL was associated with higher rates of spectacle independence, but higher rates and severity of symptomatic glare as well as reduced contrast sensitivity. Within multifocal IOLs, diffractive compared to refractive IOLs tended to have better near vision and a lower rate of symptomatic glare. Extended depth-of-focus IOLs compared to diffractive multifocal IOL demonstrated equal or superior intermediate visual acuity, with less than or equal rates of glare. Accommodative IOLs represent a broad range of technologies that continue to develop, and new technologies offering opportunities for postoperative adjustment of refractive outcome are emerging.
  3,666 631 3
Comparison of endoscopic and external dacryocystorhinostomy for treatment of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction
Pei-Yuan Su
January-March 2018, 8(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_10_18  PMID:29675345
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (EN-DCR) and external DCR (EX-DCR) for the treatment of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANLDO). DESIGN: This was a retrospective, comparative, nonrandomized clinical study. METHODS: Reviewed medical records of PANLDO underwent DCR at Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital from May 2011 to June 2017. Data regarding the lacrimal passage system, comorbidities, surgical outcomes, and postoperative complications were analyzed. Anatomical success was defined as patency confirmed by intranasal endoscopic inspection of the ostium and successful lacrimal irrigation; functional success was defined as complete resolution of epiphora and positive fluorescein dye disappearance test, which were assessed at postoperative 6th months. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy patients (37 males, 133 females, mean age 57 years) underwent 178 DCR surgeries for PANLDO. The overall anatomical success rate was 94.4% (93.5% in EN-DCR vs. 95.8% in EX-DCR, P = 0.511) and functional success rate was 90.4% (90.7% in EN-DCR and 90.1% in EX-DCR, P = 0.909). Surgical outcomes were comparable between two groups. Complication rate was low in both groups, including 11 cases of early canalicular stent dislodge (7 in EN-DCR, 4 in EX-DCR), one case of postoperative nasal bleeding in EN-DCR, and two skin wound dehiscence and three cutaneous keloid formation in EX-DCR. None of these cases were concluded into surgical failure at the final visit. The time to symptoms relief was statistical significantly shorter in EN-DCR group (1.7 vs. 3.7 weeks in EX-DCR, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Success rate of DCR for PANLDO in our study was high, and complication rate was low for both endoscopic and external approaches. There was no statistically significant difference between them. EN-DCR provided higher satisfaction due to quicker recovery and lack of external incision. Endoscopic DCR should be considered as the primary treatment of choice for PANLDO.
  3,778 495 5
How to effectively manage myopia
Ann Yi-Chiun Chuang
January-March 2017, 7(1):44-47
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_24_17  PMID:29018754
Myopia has become epidemic in the world. Without effective control, the progression may lead to excessive myopia with severe complications affecting vision and ocular alignment. The genetic factors and environmental factors of myopia are closely interrelated to each other. Asian ethnicity and parental myopia, among other genetic factors, influence the refractive outcome dramatically when environmental risk factors such as hours of near work and reading distance are analyzed. Outdoor activities are protective measures that retard myopia progression. Total time under the sun and not the specific outdoor activities are contributing factors. Current effective treatments for myopia include atropine of high, moderate, and low doses, relative peripheral myopia-inducing devices, and bifocal spectacles including prism bifocal spectacle lenses. Although atropine is considered highly effective in randomized controlled trials, it is not well tolerated in a clinical setting, especially in high dosage. Since the severity of rebound effect of atropine after cessation of usage and the side effects are directly related to the concentration of the medication, it is recommended that low-dose atropine is used in the initial attempt. Higher concentration for better control can be considered when compliance is observed. Devices that induce relative peripheral myopia such as orthokeratology are moderately effective interventions that are well accepted by children who wish to be spectacle free. Bifocal spectacles generally have low effect in myopia control. Prism bifocal spectacle lenses may have a special niche in myopia retardation for patients with low lags of accommodation.
  3,504 665 2
Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia
Anupam Singh, Ritu Nagpal, Sanjeev Kumar Mittal, Chirag Bahuguna, Prashant Kumar
April-June 2017, 7(2):62-69
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_8_17  PMID:29018759
Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time), penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents.
  3,466 506 -
Assessment of the optic nerve head, peripapillary, and macular microcirculation in the newly diagnosed patients with primary open-angle glaucoma treated with topical tafluprost and tafluprost/timolol fixed combination
Natalia Ivanovna Kurysheva
April-June 2019, 9(2):93-99
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_108_17  PMID:31198667
RELEVANCE: The ability of antiglaucoma drugs to improve ocular hemoperfusion is an important aspect of their action. Tafluprost is the first preservative-free prostaglandin analog. The efficacy and safety of tafluprost, as well as tafluprost/timolol fixed combination (FC), were demonstrated in randomized multicenter trials. However, there is no literature on the effect of tafluprost and its FC on the peripapillary and macular blood flow. PURPOSE: To determine the changes of microcirculation in the optic nerve head (ONH), peripapillary retina, and macula in patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) under the topical tafluprost and tafluprost/timolol FC treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) was performed in dynamics with an interval of a week in 36 patients (36 eyes) with a newly diagnosed initial stage of POAG: 12 eyes with tafluprost, 12 – tafluprost/timolol FC, and 12 – no topical treatment (the control group). The change in intraocular pressure (IOP), mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) of the eye, and vessel density (VD) inside the ONH (inside disc), as well as in the peripapillary retina and macula, was evaluated by comparing paired repeated observations using the median growth analysis. RESULTS: In the tafluprost group, there were a decrease in IOP by 19.4% and an increase in MOPP by 8.7% from the reference level. In the tafluprost/timolol group, these figures were 43% and 30.1%, respectively. OCT-A values did not change reliably, except for VD inside disc: the median growth of the tafluprost group was 2.28 (P = 0.02) and of the tafluprost/timolol group was 1.82 (P = 0.03). These changes were obtained in 11 of 12 patients in each group under treatment. In control group, all indicators remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: A significant increase of MOPP and a decrease of VD in the ONH in patients with initial glaucoma occurred within a week under the topical tafluprost or its FC. This can be explained by the restoration of autoregulation of the ocular blood flow in conditions of pronounced hypotensive effect of the drugs.
  3,498 414 1
Update on the role of impression cytology in ocular surface disease
Zhang-Zhe Thia, Louis Tong
July-September 2019, 9(3):141-149
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_57_19  PMID:31572650
Understanding of the molecular pathology of ocular surface disease (OSD) is poor, and treatment is highly unsatisfactory. To facilitate treatment of OSD, a relatively noninvasive procedure, i.e. impression cytology (IC) has been shown to be useful. Recently, the technologies employed in research studies using IC in OSD have vastly improved, and standardized IC has even been used in clinical trials of dry eye. Here, this review aims to describe the advances of IC in the last 10 years, which serves as an update on the progress in this field since the last major review of IC. OSD that has been recently evaluated include meibomian gland dysfunction, Sjogren's syndrome, Steven–Johnson syndrome, and postmenopausal dry eye. The recent studies (4 longitudinal, 18 cross-sectional analyses) which utilized IC analyzed DNA, RNA, proteins, and ocular surface cells, including memory T-lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils, conjunctival epithelial cells, and goblet cells. These studies employed quantification of transcripts associated with inflammation, proteins involved in oxidative stress, enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases, and cell surface proteins by flow cytometry, such as HLA-DR, cytokine and chemokine receptors, markers for T cell differentiation, and DC activation, in addition to the more traditional morphological evaluation of squamous metaplasia and staining for goblet cells. Some challenges in the clinical use of IC have also been described, including issues related to storage and normalization of data. In summary, advances in IC have permitted a more robust evaluation of the ocular surface and will facilitate progress in the understanding and treatment of OSD.
  3,423 482 3
Aqueous shunt implantation in glaucoma
Jing Wang, Keith Barton
July-September 2017, 7(3):130-137
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_35_17  PMID:29034151
Aqueous shunts or glaucoma drainage devices are increasingly utilized in the management of refractory glaucoma. The general design of the most commonly-used shunts is based on the principles of the Molteno implant: ie. a permanent sclerostomy (tube), a predetermined bleb area (plate) and diversion of aqueous humour to the equatorial region and away from the limbal subconjunctival space. These three factors make aqueous shunts more resistant to scarring as compared to trabeculectomy. The two most commonly used shunts are the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve, which contains a flow-restrictor, and the non-valved Baervedlt Glaucoma Implant. While the valved implants have a lower tendency to hypotony and related complications, the non-valved implants with larger, more-biocompatible end plate design, achieve lower intraocular pressures with less encapsulation. Non-valved implants require additional suturing techniques to prevent early hypotony and a number of these methods will be described. Although serious shunt-related infection is rare, corneal decompensation and diplopia are small but significant risks.
  3,214 408 5
Serum components and clinical efficacies of autologous serum eye drops in dry eye patients with active and inactive Sjogren syndrome
I-Hsin Ma, Lily Wei Chen, Wen-Hui Tu, Chia-Ju Lu, Chien-Jung Huang, Wei-Li Chen
October-December 2017, 7(4):213-220
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_102_17  PMID:29296554
PURPOSE: Autologous serum eye drops are considered safe and efficient for the treatment of various ocular surface disorders, including dry eye diseases (DED) caused by the primary and secondary Sjogren syndrome (SS). However, the serum components in patients of SS may be different from those of normal patients and can thus lead to unpredictable therapeutic effects. This study divided the SS patients into active and inactive types based on the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the presence or absence of active rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: We compared the serum components of these two groups with standard and multiplex enzyme linked immunosorbent assay arrays and predicted the therapeutic effects of topical autologous serum for the treatment of DED with ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and Oxford Schema scale (OSS). RESULTS: Hyaluronic acid and transforming growth factor b1 levels were significantly higher in the active SS group compared to the inactive SS group (P < 0.01), whereas epidermal growth factors, insulin growth factor 1, and fibroblast growth factor b had no significant differences between these two groups. Active SS group had significantly higher expressions of interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha compared to inactive SS patients (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in therapeutic effects between these two groups, as measured with the OSDI or OSS. CONCLUSION: Dividing the Sjogren dry eye patients into active and inactive groups may appear as a reasonable method to predict the quality of autologous serum eye drops, but there seems to be no significant predictability to the therapeutic effects.
  3,128 447 9
Dexamethasone implant (0.7 mg) in Indian patients with macular edema: Real-life scenario
Manish Nagpal, Navneet Mehrotra, Rakesh Juneja, Hardik Jain
July-September 2018, 8(3):141-148
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_62_17  PMID:30294527
Context: Role of Ozurdex in macular edema due to various posterior segment pathologies. AIM: The aim of this study is to report outcome of Ozurdex implant in macular edema (ME) secondary to various posterior segment pathologies. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a single-center, retrospective, interventional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients of ME were treated with one or more Ozurdex implants (0.7 mg). Data collection included demographic details, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness (CFT), duration of efficacy, and record of adverse events (if any) within 24 weeks. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Paired sample t-test, Stata data analysis, and statistical software, version 12.1, StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA, were used in the study. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen eyes of 104 patients were studied which had a diagnosis of diabetic ME (n = 46), retinal vein occlusion (n = 40), and uveitis (n = 30). The average age of patients (mean ± standard deviation) was 50.2 ± 21.9 years. Baseline mean ± SD (standard deviation) logMAR BCVA, CFT, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were 0.636 ± 0.4, 527.8 ± 210.1 μm, and 15.3 ± 3.8 mmHg, respectively. The reinjection interval was around 12–18 weeks. Ozurdex proved its efficacy in improving mean logMAR visual acuity and reduction of CFT from baseline till 12 weeks' follow-up period (0.414 ± 0.5 and 301.5 ± 278.5, respectively; P < 0.05), and after 12 weeks' follow-up, it started worsening (0.530 ± 0.9 and 444.8 ± 375.2, respectively; P > 0.05). The most common reported adverse event was significant rise of IOP (>5 mmHg), with a total of 12 cases followed by cataract 9 cases. CONCLUSION: Ozurdex implant leads to a significant improvement in BCVA and CFT values till 12 weeks, followed by a gradual decline for all the pathologies studied together. No new safety concerns were observed with the Ozurdex implant. The duration of efficacy was found to be <24 weeks.
  3,188 331 5
Factors affecting surgical outcome of intermittent exotropia
Chee-Ming Lee, Ming-Hui Sun, Ling-Yuh Kao, Ken-Kuo Lin, Meng-Ling Yang
January-March 2018, 8(1):24-30
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_44_17  PMID:29675346
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting surgical outcome in intermittent exotropia. DESIGNS: This was a retrospective interventional study. METHODS: Intermittent exotropic patients who had undergone surgical correction with a postoperative follow-up period of 1 month or more were included in the study. Surgical success was defined as an alignment between 10 prism diopters (PD) of exotropia or 5 PD of esotropia at 1 month. After data collection, data were analyzed in SPSS version 23 software. The main outcome measures were the factors affecting surgical outcome. RESULTS: We included 101 patients, including 52 (51.5%) male and 49 (48.5%) female. Among them, 62 (61.4%) patients achieved surgical success. Undercorrection was the primary reason of surgical failure. Multivariate regression analysis showed that a larger preoperative angle of deviation was associated with unfavorable surgical outcome (P = 0.053, odds ratio [OR] =0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.94–1.00), and the presence of postoperative day 1 (POD 1) diplopia correlated significantly with higher surgical success (P = 0.001, OR = 4.54, 95% CI = 1.80–11.43). The presence of POD 1 diplopia was highly associated with POD 1 esotropia (P = 0.005, OR = 7.26, 95% CI = 1.84–28.58). CONCLUSION: In intermittent exotropia, larger preoperative angle of deviation may predict a lower surgical success rate. Despite a worrisome issue, the presence of diplopia on first POD is associated with immediate postoperative alignment of esotropia and predicts a higher surgical success.
  3,062 302 1
Blindness due to leptomeningeal carcinomatosis as an initial manifestation of recurrent acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Ya-Chi Huang, Cyuan-Jheng Wang, Jieh-Ren Jou
October-December 2019, 9(4):288-291
DOI:10.4103/tjo.tjo_107_17  PMID:31942438
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is an uncommon presentation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and it is a devastating and life-threatening complication. The disease affects all levels of the central nervous system, and most patients present with different multifocal neurological symptoms. This case was a 34-year-old male who had acute bilateral blindness secondary to recurrent ALL with meningeal infiltration. Diagnosis of LC is made based on the clinical symptoms and the test results including cranial and spinal magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) survey. The differential diagnosis of meningeal enhancement and early treatment are also important for prognosis. This case had a good visual recovery after treatment.
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