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   2015| July-September  | Volume 5 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 25, 2015

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Rod metabolic demand drives progression in retinopathies
Michael K Lin, Soo Hyun Kim, Lijuan Zhang, Yi-Ting Tsai, Stephen H Tsang
July-September 2015, 5(3):105-108
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2015.06.002  PMID:29018679
Various factors are thought to cause the development and progression of disease in macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa. Some of the deleterious processes include oxidative stress, hypoxia, metabolic derangement, genetics, and vasculopathy. In this review, we present a unified theory for the pathophysiology of several retinopathies based on the unique and intense metabolism of rod photoreceptors.
  1,590 120 9
CASE REPORTS
Easy-to-prepare autologous platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of refractory corneal ulcers
Tzu En Wu, Chiung Ju Chen, Chao-Chien Hu, Cheng-Kuo Cheng
July-September 2015, 5(3):132-135
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2014.09.001  PMID:29018685
As platelets are rich in growth factors for tissue regeneration, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to treat some refractory corneal defects. Although PRP is effective, the cost of its preparation is very high. This article presents three cases of refractory corneal ulcer under the prescription of autolo-gous PRP. The autologous PRP used in these cases was easily prepared in the blood bank laboratory. In this paper, we collected three patients with refractory corneal ulcer who were unresponsive to con ventional treatment. The patients presented with neurotrophic ulcer, exposure corneal ulcer, and limbal deciency with corneal ulcer after hepatitic keratitis. Although we easily prepared autologous PRP eye drops using simple laboratory centrifugation, this preparation still had a clinical effect on corneal defect. The mean intervention time was 24 ± 6.9 days. The case with exposure corneal ulcer had significant wound healing and the other two cases felt subjective symptom relief. There were some clinical im provements of refractory corneal ulcers in our three cases. We present the clinical results of three cases and report an easy procedure for the preparation of autologous PRP. Autologous PRP prepared simply in the laboratory, it may be an alternative option for treating refractory corneal ulcer.
  1,170 110 4
Occult Descemet’s membrane detachment after phacoemulsification surgery mimicking pseudophakic bullous keratopathy
Shih-Wen Wang, Sung-Huei Tseng
July-September 2015, 5(3):136-139
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2015.04.001  PMID:29018686
We herein report two cases of occult Descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD) after phacoemulsifi-cation surgery, which initially presented as persistent corneal edema and had been considered as pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. The patients were thus scheduled to receive corneal transplantation. For Case 1, DMD was incidentally detected by slit-lamp examination 2 months postoperatively, only when part of the cornea became clearer. For Case 2, anterior segment optical coherence tomography demonstrated extensive DMD, which had lasted 5 months after the operation. DMDs in both patients had been successfully attached after descemetopexy. Occult DMD should be suspected in patients with persistent severe corneal edema after phacoemulsification surgery. Corneal transplantation may be avoided by timely diagnosis and treatment of DMD.
  1,164 69 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Autologous serum therapy in recalcitrant laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis-induced neurotrophic epitheliopathy
Shan-Jiun Lin, Chien-Chia Su, David C.K Chang, Brian Hsi, Fung-Rong Hu, Shwu-Huey Lee, I-Jong Wang
July-September 2015, 5(3):109-113
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2015.05.004  PMID:29018680
Background/Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of autologous serum eye drops for patients with recalcitrant laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)-induced neurotrophic epitheliopathy (LINE) unresponsive to conventional treatment, and to determine the possible predisposing risk factors of these patients. Methods: We enrolled 10 consecutive patients (20 eyes) undergoing femtosecond-assisted myopic LASIK surgery presenting with recalcitrant LINE for > 1 year. Another 340 patients (713 eyes) receiving femtosecond-assisted myopic LASIK without recalcitrant LINE were set as controls. Possible risk factors associated with recalcitrant LINE were investigated. Twenty percent autologous serum treatment was prescribed to 20 eyes. The efficacy of autologous serum was assessed with ocular surface conditions, tear function, and the change of best-corrected visual acuity. Results: Age older than 30 years [odds ratio (OR) = 7.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–34.50], flap thickness < 110 μm (OR = 3.47; 95% CI, 1.22–9.73), and a flap diameter < 8.5 mm (OR = 5.38; 95% CI, 1.95–14.85) pose higher risks in femtosecond laser-assisted myopic LASIK. All eyes (100%) achieved remission after autologous serum treatment. The visual acuity before treatment was 0.49 ± 0.41 in LogMAR, and the visual acuity after treatment was 0.14 ± 0.22 in LogMAR. Time to achieve remission was 8.26 ± 11.87 weeks. Mean relapse-free survival after discontinuing autologous serum was 47 weeks. Conclusion: Risk factors of recalcitrant LINE in femtosecond laser-assisted myopic LASIK were identified as older age, a thinner flap (<110 μm), and a small flap diameter (<8.5 mm). Autologous serum eye drops can effectively improve corneal surface conditions and postoperative visual acuity.
  1,019 78 3
Changes of intraocular pressure and refractive status in children following cycloplegic refraction with 1% cyclopentolate and 1% tropicamide☆
Kuo-Chi Hung, Hsiu-Mei Huang, Pei-Wen Lin
July-September 2015, 5(3):124-127
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2015.06.001  PMID:29018683
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of cycloplegic mydriasis with 1% cyclopentolate and 1% tropicamide on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and refractive status of children for cycloplegic refraction and compare the [OP and refractive changes between hyperopic and myopic groups. Methods: This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Ninety one children received cyclo-plegic mydriasis. The IOP was measured with a noncontact tonometer before cycloplegic administration. One drop of 1% cyclopentolate was administered, which was followed by two drops of 1% tropicamide at an interval of 10 minutes. The IOP was then measured 30 minutes after tropicamide instillation. Autorefraction was assessed with an autorefractometer before and after cycloplegic mydriasis. Results: The mean age of the 44 girls and 47 boys was 7.3 ± 2.4 years. The mean precycloplegic IOP was 14.45 ± 2.47 mmHg and the mean postcycloplegic IOP was 15.06 ± 3.08 mmHg in all eyes. A significant difference was noted in the IOP change (p = 0.033). In the 39 hyperopic eyes, the mean precycloplegic IOP and postcycloplegic IOP were 14.54 ± 2.53 mmHg and 15.69 ± 3.35 mmHg, respectively. There was a significant difference in the IOP change (p = 0.008). In the 52 myopic eyes, the mean precycloplegic IOP and postcycloplegic IOP were 14.38 ± 2.44 mmHg and 14.61 ± 2.80 mmHg, respectively (p = 0.72). There was no significant IOP change in the myopic group. The postcycloplegic IOP was significantly different between the hyperopic and the myopic groups (p = 0.021). Three eyes (3.3%) had an IOP elevation more than 5.0 mmHg after cycloplegic mydriasis. Postcycloplegic refraction showed significant hyperopic shifts in all eyes (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Cycloplegic mydriasis with 1% cyclopentolate and 1% tropicamide caused IOP changes in preschool and school-aged children with hyperopia. Ophthalmologists should be very cautious in monitoring IOP changes for children with cycloplegic medication use.
  997 80 2
CASE REPORTS
Retinal detachment with a break at pars plicata associated with congenital malformation of the lens–zonule–ciliary body complex
Fang-Yi Tsai, Ling-Ing Lau, Shih-Jen Chen, Fenq-Lih Lee
July-September 2015, 5(3):143-146
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2014.06.003  PMID:29018688
Retinal detachment with a break at the pars plicata associated with congenital malformation of lens–zonule–ciliary body complex is rare; most reports are of young Japanese male patients with atopic dermatitis. The present case report is the first to describe the condition in a Chinese patient with no atopic dermatitis or trauma history. A 22-year-old male presented with blurred vision in the left eye for 4 months. Fundus examination revealed shallow lower temporal retinal detachment. Further examination with scleral indentation under maximal pupil dilatation identified a break at the far periphery beyond the ora serrata and pars plana. Gonioscopy revealed a pars plicata break at the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium associated with congenital ciliary process hypoplasia and subtle lens defect at the same meridian. The retina was successfully reattached after segmental scleral buckling, cryopexy, and laser photocoagulation.
  1,012 62 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of trabeculectomy with Ex-PRESS shunt implantation in primary-open-angle-glaucoma patients: A retrospective study
Jia-Houng Liu, Hung-Yu Lin, Shih-Hao Tzeng, Shih-Chun Chao
July-September 2015, 5(3):120-123
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2015.04.004  PMID:29018682
Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of intraocular pressure (IOP) control and medication use over time after trabeculectomy (TRBC) and Ex-PRESS shunt implantation in primary-open-angle-glaucoma (POAG) patients. Design: Retrospective case series. Patients and methods: A total of 33 unilateral POAG patients were enrolled, and 17 patients received traditional TRBC and 16 patients received Ex-PRESS device implantation. Data on IOP, reduction of antiglaucoma medication, and major complications were collected and analyzed after 12 months of follow up. Results: After 12 months of follow up, both groups showed good IOP control. The mean preoperative IOP decreased from 38.5 (±6.9) to 18.2 (±11) mmHg after TRBC, and from 38.5 (±9.1) to 19.53 (±12.36) mmHg after Ex-PRESS implantation (both p < 0.05). The mean number of antiglaucoma medications prescribed at the last follow up decreased from 3.2 (±0.5) preoperatively to 1.2 (±1.4) after TRBC versus 3.3 (±0.7) preoperatively to 1 (±0.9) after Ex-PRESS implantation (both p < 0.05). Complete success rate (defined as no medication after surgery with IOP >5 and <18 mmHg) and qualified success rate (defined as with or without medication after surgery with IOP >5 and <18 mmHg) were similar (47% vs. 43% and 76.47% vs. 75%) between the two groups without statistical difference (p > 0.05). However, postoperative hypotony rate was more frequent after Ex-PRESS (37.5%) than after TRBC (17.64%). Discussion: TRBC and Ex-PRESS implantation provided similar IOP control and reduction of postoperative medication with low incidence of postoperative complications at intermediate-term follow up. However, the Ex-PRESS implantation device may last longer but with extra costs. It is up to the surgeon to decide which procedure to use according to the patient’s situation and economic circumstances.
  1,011 63 2
CASE REPORTS
Ocular post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder
Yun-Wen Chen, Hun-Ju Yu, Yi-Chieh Poon, Hsi-Kung Kuo
July-September 2015, 5(3):140-142
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2014.06.001  PMID:29018687
We report a case of an iris tumor with muttonfat keratic precipitates in a young patient after liver transplantation surgery. A 6yearold girl underwent liver transplantation for congenital biliary atresia and was subsequently immunosuppressed with oral cyclosporine. We examined her 5 years after transplantation because of a “white nodule in her left eye,” which had been detected by her father one day before visiting our clinic. Ophthalmological examinations revealed symmetric visual acuity and normal afferent papillary reflex. Slitlamp examination revealed a depigmented iris nodule approximately3 × 2 mm with muttonfat keratic precipitates in the anterior chamber. Fundus examination was unremarkable, and computed tomography (CT) of the head, neck, and abdomen showed normal findings. Based on the suspicion of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), therapy was initiated, which included tapering cyclosporine and topical mydriatics. After 2.5 months, the lesion resolved and no more muttonfat keratic precipitates were identified in the anterior chamber. In this PTLD case, the patient presented with an iris nodule and muttonfat keratic precipitates, and the ocular PTLD presen tation resolved spontaneously after tapering cyclosporine.
  934 61 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Suture pull-through insertion of graft donor in Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty: Results of 4-year follow-up
Vincenzo Sarnicola, Chiara Millacci, Enrica Sarnicola, Caterina Sarnicola, Francesco Sabatino, Andrew Ruggiero
July-September 2015, 5(3):114-119
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2015.07.001  PMID:29018681
Purpose: To report our clinical experience and 4-year follow-up results of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) with the suture pull-through insertion technique. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 195 eyes in which a posterior lamellar keratoplasty was performed between 2007 and 2011. The insertion of a folded donor lenticule was performed with a double-armed 10-0 suture using a straight transchamber needle and half-circle needle. Endothelial cell density was measured annually up to 4 years after the surgery, and cell loss was calculated based on the median preoperative donor endothelial cell density. Postoperative complications, primary graft failure, pupillary block, and dislocation of the donor tissue were assessed. Results: All patients underwent uncomplicated DSAEK. Data were available for 195 eyes (100%) at 1 year, 186 eyes (95.3%) at 2 years, 176 eyes (90.2%) at 3 years, and 160 eyes (82%) at 4 years. Median preop-erative donor endothelial cell density was 2688 cells/mm2 [interquartile range (IQR) 207.5 cells/mm2], which decreased by 27% at 1 year (1956 cells/mm2, IQR 264.8 cells/mm2), 31% at 2 years (1855 cells/mm2, IQR 320.5 cells/mm2), 35% at 3 years (1756.5 cells/mm2, IQR 306.5 cells/mm2), and 36% at 4 years (1709.5 cells/mm2, IQR 288,0 cells/mm2). Nine patients (4.6%) had a dislocation of donor tissue; all were successfully reattached with a second air injection. Only three eyes (1.5%) developed graft failure. Pupillary block was present in 15 eyes (7.7%). Conclusion: DSAEK with suture pull-through insertion of donor graft represents a simplified and safe technique that has endothelial cell loss comparable with other techniques and low rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications.
  925 69 1
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Rescue effects of intravitreal aflibercept in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration
Ning-Yi Hsia, Chun-Ju Lin, Jane-Ming Lin, Wen-Lu Chen, Peng-Tai Tien, Yi-Hao Ho, Chung-Yuan Kuo, Yi-Yu Tsai
July-September 2015, 5(3):128-131
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2015.05.001  PMID:29018684
We report the rescue results of intravitreal aflibercept in patients with treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We retrospectively analyzed eyes with neovascular AMD resistant to posterior subtenon triamcinolone, intravitreal ranibizumab, and/or bevacizumab treatment in a tertiary medical center in middle Taiwan between December 2013 and October 2014. We then switched treatment to 2.0 mg aflibercept. The main outcome included changes in best-corrected visual acuity and central foveal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography during monthly follow-up. There were 204 patients with neovascular AMD, and the percentage of refractory cases was 1.96% (4 of 204 cases). Our study included five eyes of four patients that were resistant to multiple treatments and subsequently switched to aflibercept. The mean age was 71.25 ± 11.09 years (range 57–83 years). Treatments were on average 6.6 times previously. Upon switching to aflibercept treatment, the average central foveal thickness on optical coherence tomography was 505.6 ± 270.86 μm (range 150–815 μm). After aflibercept treatment, the average central foveal thickness was 192 ± 51.76 μm (range 149–274 μm). All patients showed anatomic improvement, and 80% of the eyes (4 of 5 eyes) had improved best-corrected visual acuity and 20% of the eyes (1 of 5 eyes) had stable visual acuity. Patients tolerated the treatment well without serious adverse events. This short-term study showed that intravitreal aflibercept was effective and safe in treatment-resistant neovascular AMD cases. However, analysis of more cases and long-term follow-ups are mandatory.
  940 50 3
EDITORIAL
Latest advances in the treatment of corneal diseases
I-Jong Wang
July-September 2015, 5(3):103-104
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2015.07.003  PMID:29018678
  779 62 -